Introduction “A house is a machine forliving in”15.  These are the words of an influential architect.

Le Corbusier was an architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer andknown as one of the pioneers of modern architecture, he is also part of the firstgeneration of architects who were part ofthe International school of architecture, being their most able architect and becauseof his persuasive nature he became one the most influential architects. Corbusier designs mainly where focused on the combination functionalism of the modern movement with a bold, sculpturalexpressionism. 1 This essay will look into the argument of Le Corbusier’s,that architects of the time should take more references fromengineering and the factories of the industrial era. I will also talk about thedetail and the emphases Le Corbusier goes into to displaythe importance of the use of simple geometric forms and relying oncalculations to design buildings, with this I will look at his use of language andthe way he writes to show this aspect. I will also look at the way he justifiesthis subjects through his drawings pictures and other forms of design.  Geometric formsand simple Compositions The argument that Le Corbusier raises is that primary formsare beautiful because they can be clearly appreciated.This is shown in the first part of the authors writing”primary forms are beautiful forms because they areclearly legible”2this is an example of le Corbusier’s main argument thatarchitects of his time should design more simply as it is clearer.

 He says the quote Figure 1 this is Villa La Roche-Jeanerette this is also supported by the book written by LeCorbusier Towards a New Architecture this is a copy of 1927 version which isthe original edition of the translated version, this book states a similarpoint “Primary forms are beautifulforms because they can be clearly appreciated”3.This quote clearly indicates theargument Le Corbusier is raising, that if architecture is approached with asimple composition it is easier to understand. This also shows his thoughtsbehind how he wants to approach his designs at this point in his career, thisis reflected in the design of a building such as The Villa LaRoche-Jeanerette (Figure 1) The designed in1923, now when looking at the composition of this design you can see that thesimple forms are recurrent, infect the whole design is composed of geometric formssuch as the very cuboid like façade.    Designs like Villa Savoy completed in 1931(Figure 2) was very much designed with the same style so this idealcame up in many parts of his work so you can tell, he wants to turn that senseof geometric forms into a trend showing again trying to be very influential.  Figure 2 Villa Savoy         Le Corbusier ,Adolf Meyer and Walter Gropiusall  studied under   Figure 3 The Fagus Factory Peter Behrens and he is alsoo the architect who influenced them with the idea of eginering forms. Knowig this when looking at theFagus Factory (Figure 3) designed by AdolfMeyer and Walter Groupius when looking its features, you can really tell thatthe building was designed with allot of geometrical features.  Mainly Walter Groupies who very similarideals well known for the founder of the German art school known as Bauhaus when looking at the school work in general you can tell that ithas this simple and primary forms are used very frequently (figure4). He also had similarideals about engineers he liked to educate the artists about the differencebetween architecture and engineering Walter grouses famous quotes was “Architecture begins where engineering ends.

“13What he means with this quote is Architecture is there to make thebuildings look beautiful, this can only start when the engineering aspect starts,this is  when you  make sure the building is  standing , ends, the idea of objects beingaesthetically pleasing, can only start after they have been machine made.     IndustrialismLe Corbusier and the Bauhaus both where interested in massproduction and industrialism. Bauhaus revolutionised the design and production of modern furniture by theuse of steel as frames or supports for furniture and other appliances. The useof machine made and mass-produced steel created simple forms that requiredlittle handcrafting and it added to the streamlined, geometric modern look ofBauhaus furniture. Where Le Corbusier spoke about mass production of housing”a state of mind for living in massproduction”14 which shows that he wants to convey the idea ofthe having houses building being mass produced. Figure 4 Bauhaus   Le Corbusier use of writing as a tool to influence architectureLe Corbusier’s ideas have always been about simplicity. Inthe book, he uses the word “primitive” 4a lot to show how complicated architecture has become.

He even says this in his writing by claiming that “The architects of today no longer makesimple forms” 5the way he uses his language seems to beratearchitects to showing them  whatarchitecture has become. Then he indirectly makes the audience(architects) think about how they approach there designs by saying “architects today are afraid of thegeometric constituents of surfaces”6 similarly in the book itsays  “architectstoday are afraid of the geometric constituents of surfaces”.7 Thismakes the audience question themselves why are they afraid of using a geometriccomponents in their designs?, Then encourages the architects by giving them awith positive aspect when using geometrical forms, saying that “The great problems of modern constructionwill be soloed through geometry” 8 this will then encourage thereader to consider using simple forms. These quotes all show his persuasivenature by engaging the reader, he berets architects to think about the geometricalcompositions in their designs and then encourages them by a positive aspect ifthey consider this style it’s almost a propaganda esc writing.From this I can see the way he is writinghe was not only bringing his argument/idea across but at the same time he isvery persuasive in the way he uses his language. This persuasive nature makeshim like seem very obsessed with the simple and engineered architecture.    Le Corbusier again uses the word “Primitive”9 in a historical context.

He believes thatgoing backwards is the way forwards.  Beforecertain tools where made Le Corbusier believed that man used measurements as away of understanding what they were making; using arms, feet and fingers asunits. An example of this is in the book when hestates “imposedorder by means of measurements. In order to get his measurements, he has takenhis pace, his foot, his elbow or his finger. By imposing the order of his footor his arm, he has created a unite which regulates the whole work; and thiswork is on his own scale, to his own proportion, comfortable for him, to hismeasure. It is on the human scale”10.

Thisquote is from the book which is an example of him embracing the fact that backwardswas the way forward. The most important part of this quote is “It is on the human scale” 11asit really makes the reader think about the human scale and how this is how it’ssupposed to be.  Modular  Le Corbusier busier was also interested in the humanescale he made his own scale called the Modular (figure 5) The Modular is a geometrical grid based on the human form. Thisindicates again that he wants to go backwards rather than forwards also showingthat he more cares about thehuman interaction with the buildings hence hecreated an entirely new scale that relates to humane scale.   This shows that he uses the word “Primitive”in two different contexts one in which he is used it historically and secondlyto emphasis the complexity of architecture in his time.  Figure 5 :geometrical grid of the modular  Le Corbusier’s interest inMachines From his writing, you can tell that he wasinspired by the machine age (this is the development of newtechnology and industrial processes).

 In the book, he praised the beauty of the ship engines, the turbineengine, the automobile and even the bridge construction. An example of this iswhen he says, “The air plane is a productof high selection”12. That shoes he likes All design of theengineer, whose products had to reflect function and could not be filled upwith unessential decoration.

He then talks about how the airplane teaches alesson about solving problems ” the lessonof the air plane is in the logic that governed the statement of the problem andits realization” 16showing again that he is telling other architectsto think like an engineer to see a problem and then fix it or to think about adesign logically  rather creatively  now engages the audience by stating that the ” problem of the house has not beenposed”17 meaning that architectshaven’t thought about the house as problem to be thought out properly rather than just designed . Then he explains thatchbecause designs haven’t been thought about properly they don’t meet our needsbut people still live in them “current architectural things do not answer toour needs “then saying “yet there are standards for living”18 showingthat he cares very much about functionalism and about humane ergonomicsreferring back to the modular backs up the fact that he cares about living standardsas the measurements he uses whir all humane scale rather than any other scale.It was also very interesting how he used the word “standards” saying it in argumentative way as if architects of histime violated a certain standard of architecture as if there are certain rulesthat architect have to follow to design a house that someone can dwell in. LeCorbusier finally sums that inter paragraph whit one of the most famous sayingin the world of architecture “the house is a machine for living in”19showing his inspiration from machines.         Figure 6 He again wants to change the way architects design, by attemptingto make architects think about setting a new standard of architecture throughcertain rules that will inevitably to solve problems “we must see to theestablishment of standards  sow we canface up to the problem of perfection”20 this shows his whey oftrying to set rules and regulations to start tackling the issues and the problemsthath occur when designing a building. He uses old archietecture as an exampleto show that there where certain rules followed to or standerd that he beliveswhere used to create a building “the Parthenonis a prouduct of selection applied to a stnaderd”21  he used this exampel  of the pathernon (figure 6) to show that youcan creat any kind of archtecture using certain reules or standerds aganinrefering back to the past showig how even in anciantanciant times  they used certain rules in this beuldings caseits ruls was that a space is cllassified by structer and  (pillers) and a roof .

 When looking at the way he talks about engines or machineswhere there it is  air planes or cars hestill the sense of interest and passion for functionalism the quote “A house is a machine forliving in” 22 really emphasises thethis aspect of functionalism as machines are only made for function.                                                       Conclusion To conclude, it can be seen that he would use theseideals to see the buildings as an object in which his eyes had to be satisfiedby what he had created. This is one of the main points of the entire argument whetherit’s in the book or in the writing. His persuasive language and the way heindirectly makes the audience participate with his ideas and thoughts seems tome like it is almost a propaganda to recruit architects to follow a modernismand functionalism ideal.                            1LeCorbusier online. (2017).

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