The Mars mission, which Office1 is maybe the most significant dream of humankind, does not seem impossible given recent technological advancementsOffice2 . Establishing international collaboration and participation between countries will Office3 ensure efficient support in the field of technological requirements and supply the financial budget. (MEPAG MIC-SAG Report, 2017) However, this is hampered by insufficient negotiations and political instability which cause much more cost and decelerates the technological progress. Existing organizations are inadequate for achieving to reach Mars and it does not seem possible to manage problems until manned mission in 2030. For this reason, the lack of international support constitutes a Office4 significant barrier. The most important problem is that the current Office5 international organizations such as United Nation, EU, Shanghai Cooperation Organization have expressed no interest in the Mars mission. These unwillingness and dissensions that countries conflict and challenge prevent to interest international organizations about Mars missions. This article will discuss the lack of international collaboration and how this hinders. Office6 The article also will figure out and evaluate possible solutions to overcome the political obstacles and deliver humanity to Mars Situation.
After World Wars Office7 and Office8 beginning of the Cold War push the decision makers consider their own nationality and raceOffice9 . According to Paul C. Stern (2000), countries began to contest of several areas one of them is Space explorations. NASA explained that the US alone Office10 spent $ 20 billion for Office11 the Apollo Missions (NASA, 2014). The first Moon walk that’s the one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind had had to stand on its own, cause of the inadequacy of the collective political support. The US congress or any other country did not give financial support for another moon missions. After these competitions, there were several attempts for establishing an international space agency. Some of them were being Office12 successful such as the Office13 International Space Station that were in orbital alignment of earth. The European Space Agency collaborate countries for space explorationsOffice14 in the Europe, and finally NASA that employs international scientistOffice15 s. However, space exploration is a source of prestige Office16 and a demonstration Office17 of power for countries but Mars missions does not get seriously on the agenda of any international organizationsOffice18 .
Since there has never been a manned Mars mission, problems of technological insufficiency and difficulties of living conditions arise the unreliability. Office19 After the U.S landed on the Moon at 20 June of 1969, astronauts have not ventured beyond 200-300 mile above the terrestrial globe. The main problem according to Mark Kelly, Office20 astronaut who liveOffice21 d 340 days in the space, Office22 is that there is a “lack of political will” blocking to generateOffice23 public and financial support. The linked problem according to Keith Cowing, Nasa Employee and NASA Watch editor, is stated Office24 that “Space is just a blip on the political radar” (J, Westwick 2007). For the short term, the US congress doOffice25 not give enough Office26 support for space exploration. Roger Simons state that if the economic budget can be seen as a measure of political support, in Office27 the 2015 budget, there was Office28 only $3,7 trillion spent for space exploration and it amounted to less than 1% of the federal budget’s. Office29 When Nixon was the president, the budget reached its peak Office30 of 4%. (Roger Simons, 2010) Office31 the current budget is inadequate for providing enough experiment and technology. The lack Office32 of political support Office33 prevents to occur a market for spaceOffice34 craft. There are a limited number of companies which produce or generate technology or material toOffice35 transportation foOffice36 r space explorations. (Hoffman, Stephen J, Kaplan, David I. 1997) For giving an example, banks give high rate of interest credits for these companies because of the unreliability of the congress and decision makers thus, there is limited number of entrepreneurship for entering space craft market.
For the medium term, Governmental and non-governmental organizations have a negative perspective for near Mars missions. To put it another way, Mars Missions need some international support and financial aid but the current technological facilities do not have capabilities to deliver astronauts to Mars territoryOffice37 . Even astronaut suit which are currently in use would be unable to deliver humans to Mars landOffice38 because of the radiation-absorbing or fling capabilities of lander and rover lunch system insufficient. (Francis A. Cucinotta, et all 2001) When all these problems band Office39 together, it is observed that political support decrease.
For the long-term Office40 problem is, Office41 that International OrganizationOffice42 such as the Office43 United Nation, EU, Shanghai Cooperation Organization have failed to take Office44 Mars Mission into their agenda. The stakeholders Office45 ought to take into consideration short-term benefit and reliabilityOffice46 of mars mission will come true.
Possible solutions pass through the persuading decision makers for one of the most important event in the history of is Mars mission. Mark Kelly stated that humankind spent Office47 trillions of billions of dollars for wars which took humanity back but what if the humanity turns its way to beyond from its existence, which is outside of the earthOffice48 . (Mark Kelly in Ellie Zolfagharifard ,2016) He also stated that one day, we will Office49 need another planet to maintain Office50 the human-race. Mars is the best option for this time. The fist solution this article found that boost scientist motivation and increase the number of academicians and universities which has capabilities to remove the technological inefficiencyOffice51 effect and find technological-related solutions. For this condition to occur, again political support must be forthcoming. Office52 (Mark Kelly in Ellie Zolfagharifard ,2016) When the U.S government gave support for the Office53 Apollo mission between 1961-1969, it seemed Office54 to believe that technological improvement gain accelerationOffice55 . (Bilstein E. Roger 1996) Scientist spent much more afford on delivering astronauts to space cause of the government forceOffice56 . As a consequence of the this coerceOffice57 , Financial and political support stayed behind theOffice58 NASA and this boostOffice59 ed their motivation. UN and EU should take Mars Missions into their emergence agendaOffice60 . It became meaningful that the reason why so much work of global warming consistingOffice61 . Due to the fact that international organizations such as the United Nations took important and rapidly solved problems list. (United Nations, 2015) If the international organization pay attention enough for this exploration, it seems to boost academic environment, scientist, financial supporters and public’s motivation in positive way. Another solution could be establishing an international organization will be recognized as the owner of Mars territory and assure organization with international law systemOffice62 . At this point, it pays attention the lack of international law in this area (Menon, P. 1995). There is only one agreement which signed in 1966 and emphasized the peaceful outer space. This organization would be responsible for auditing the budget and publicizing the mission Thus, it would be likely to increase political support for the mission. To illustrate this point, the third solution could be that publicizationOffice63 . in the field of every environment for Mars Mission, has high possibility to force politicians keep their promises. As the graph emphasized that public interest on space exploration changed in flowing years, the peak point is 1969 that Apollo ranger landed in moon territory. After this exploration, obviously, publicization reduced by the reason of space competition ended.
The lack of an international organization and Office64 international law Office65 preventOffice66 s the Mars Mission Office67 from being actualized. In 1962, The UN had foundOffice68 the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) for deciding and clarifying Office69 the ownership of Office70 space with 102 countries signature. But the agreement is old and not adequate for todayOffice71 Mars mission. The agreement just emphasized that space Office72 is theOffice73 common property to humanity and supportive steps should support. “The UN recalling its resolution 1721 B(XVI) of 20 December 1961, in which it expressed the belief that the United Nation should provide a focal point for international co-operation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space” (United Nations, General Assembly 21 Session, 1966) It is noteworthy that international space law is started after the moon missions discussed. The General Assembly should meet again under the title of ownership of outer space. Also, there should be specific agreement on Mars. Because concrete step will be the subject for only Mars in near future.
The establishment of a new international institution to ensure the supervision of the newly designed law and the execution of the policy and for advertisementOffice74 subsequent Mars missions would bring about quick decision making, political support and financial support. Moreover, this international organization would be Office75 responsible for connecting international space agencies such as NASA, Russia Space Agency, Europe Space Agency and China together. It is positive that the Europe Space Agency and Russia Space Agency have negotiateOffice76 d and been partner on the sharing investigation and producing satellite and explorations. (A. Farand, 2015) In addition, Nasa employs international employees in their agency. In other words, there is a positive progression bring together space agencies for the Office77 Mars Missions. It could be possible solutions which push politicians to generate much more feasible policies if possible to establish an international organization, informing public and giving positive perspective. Thus, politicians should keep their promises.
This article goal uncovers the positive side of international collaboration participation and coordination in the field of technological development and Office78 financial support for Mars Missions. It seems that there is a lack of international will and law for Mars Mission. This problem is caused of the technological unreliability which launch the rocket and rover in to the Mars territoryOffice79 . The possible solutions that gain decision makers trustworthy passes through on the establish an international cooperation and new space law over the United Nations for the Mars mission which auditing international rights and political supports. Today, Mars is among the plans of many countries such as NASA (the U.S) China, Russia, The European Space Agency, Japan work alone for Mars missions. If these space organizations share investigations and facilities among themselves and progressing will accelerate after decision makers has to confirm the support for the exploration.Office80