INTRODUCTIONThere is a consistent rise in competition owing tothe technology’s rapid escalation.
The dominant influence of IT services hasbeen endured by all the sectors of an organization. For instance the HRdepartment functions by frequently employing SAAS model of Cloud Computing (Salesforce Marketing, 2009)( which is explained later in the research paper ). Similarly, the educationalsector is experiencing an imperative incorporation of the services to provide anedge in learning capabilities. Quality education at minimal cost has alwaysbeen the intent notion of all the educators worldwide. Moreover, the developingcountries focus on achieving valuable knowledge as its indirect repercussion ison the country’s economic condition. There is always an indefinite concernregarding the correct parameter of education which surrounds the overalleducation system. Institutions keep altering its assessment patterns in orderto derive the optimal outcome, in reference to the learners.
(Ginsburg, 2010)In order to adhere with the ongoing quest, asuitable platform must be administered to execute accumulation and impartmentof data. Information Technology facilitates in optimal utilization of scarceresources at minimal cost within a limited period of time. Accordingly, cloudaims to offer innumerable services to its client in educational sector.
Itcomplies with the requisite of current generation alongwith the future one.Information Technology has offered distinctcomputing effectiveness over different time period. It has evolved graduallyand has furnished five different stages of services in continuation. (Veillard, 2016)· Mainframe: It is one of the initial computersthat was introduced. Large in size, high processing power and securityreliability are few characteristics of mainframe computer. · Personal Computer: These systemtransformed the working capability of general people.
Personal desktops ownedby common man plus commercial viability involved, helped in popularity of PC· Client server system: It is acentralized form of networking. A powerful computer having large processingpower (server ) connects clients and provide them with the necessary services andefficiencies· Computing Era : This era became aspectator of tools and services provided through networking. Storage of filesand data in discs, building an appropriate working infrastructure was moldedinto accessing data over web from shared allocation of resources. The increasedbandwidth of the Internet gave rise to computing services, Mobile computing andCloud computing became the leading indicators. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING?IT services extends to simple and complexenvironment pertaining to the needs and conditions prevailing in the crucialarea. Similarly, cloud computing caters to its users as and when on demand.This service is user oriented; it works on the basis of consumers’ needs andconvenience.
There is no standard definition which can integrate theentire effective services offered by cloud computing. In simple terms, it isutilizing the web services in such manner where minimal efforts are undertakento execute an operation. Availing elastic services from a third party (vendor),paying on the basis of usage and acquiring appropriate workable arrangementwhile performing any given task. (Technopedia) It can also besummarized as an advance and contemporary approach of storing and retrievingdata on the web. The specifics which is scattered around the globe and which isvital in deriving a ubiquitous formula can be employed via the internet, makingcloud gather information on a remote database. Internet is that essence onwhich cloud computing operates.
(Sultan, 2010)Cloud computing also makes economies of scalepossible by accumulating the data already present on the cloud. The chargewhatever is obligatory will be met by the consumer to gain access to innumerabledetails. There is an enhancement of productivity due to its cost effective,adjustable and efficient nature. It integrates the servers, networks,technology and mobility in itself.
The capital investment in obtaining theinfrastructure to make software operate is so high that it makes it impossiblefor a common man to implement it. Furthermore, developing software which isfunctional and provides proper user interface is arduous. There is an upsurgedemand for Chief Information Officers(CIO) in IT organizations as their skillshave expanded in comparison to the earlier job profile. Their objectives arenow addressing common concerns at large. (Almajalid, 2017)Decrease in Enterprise Costs and enhancement oftechnical infrastructure are guaranteed as two of the best requisites in frontof Chief Information Officers. (Lowendahl, 2016).
As per the cloudservice providers cost reduction and an adaptable framework which is versatilein its approach shall be adopted for improvement of such issues (Alshuwair, Alshwaier, & Areshey, 2012) (Olanrewaju, Khan, Mueen, & Anwar, 2017) CLOUD SERVICE DELIVERY MODELSCloud offers three different services based on thesethree delivery models (Salesforce Marketing, 2009)SAAS : When the user does not want to install thesoftware on the PC or laptop, he perhaps, can exercise the option of using Softwareas a Service. The location of the actual software is somewhere external and is managed by someone who can also bethe vendor. The user may transact with the vendor and acquire the services bypaying on consumption basis or by subscribing to it.
It is accessed through theweb services via the internet. PAAS : As the name suggests it is a Platform as aService. It provides an environment, a platform where the user may developa software or application so that it can be accessed via the Internet. Thetools for development and the infrastructure are provided by a third party whois actually providing the platform to operate on. The user will be required topay as per the consumption ( Pay per use ).
The charge can be variable as perthe terms of the provider. (Rouse)IAAS : Infrastructure as a service isobtained when a cloud service provider offers an architecture and computinginfrastructure along with resources to multiple clients. The virtualization,networking, servers may be provided by the vendor; however the applications anddata are handled by the user himself. It is an on demand service. It isflexible and works in accordance with users’ requirementsIn addition to above, the arrangement of cloud canbe in following manner : (i) Public – where infrastructure of the I.T. services are external to theenterprise.
The services are offered by third party .(ii)Private – Theadministration and the association are in the same organization. It may or maynot be hosted by a third party vendor but the network is always private. and(iii) Hybrid- Combines the essence of both public and private cloud.9 (Olanrewaju, Khan, Mueen, & Anwar, 2017)EDUCATION AND CLOUD COMPUTINGThe pedagogies are adopting student centeredapproach, which includes working with active learning methods. Traditionalpatterns are getting lesser attention, due to the declining developmentaloutcome of the learners. Such limitations have given rise to the deployment ofcloud services in educational sector. It is bridging the gap between knowledgeand information.
Educational institutes are keeping pace with the rapidinformation boost and technological development. Already, the cloud in education is a huge marketworth $5 billion; it is expected to cross $12 billion in 2019, according to areport, Cloud Computing inEducation Market – Worldwide Market Forecasts and Analysis (2014-2019) byMarketsandMarkets. (Markets and Markets, 2016) (Sharma, 2017)BEFORE CLOUD :Teaching without the application of cloud serviceshas prevailed since a long time. Teachers impart whatever knowledge theypossess and thus, the comprehend capacity of learners are limited to whateverinformation they procure.
The teacher centered approach limits the developmentof the students as they are unable to think out of the box. Few disadvantagesfaced while employing traditional methods were:· Lack of students’ focus· Lack of critical evaluation· Lack of general view· Passive integration· Less interaction· One way communication Accordingto Roger Murphy from Visual Learning Lab, University of Nottingham (Scaife, Rogers, Aldrich, & Daveis, 2012), “Extensiveresearch shows that visual imagery can play a powerful role in acceleratinglearning. Complicated concepts and processes can often be conveyed much moresimply in a visual format, and evidence suggests that use of visual media canenhance problem-solving, motivation, understanding and the expression ofideas.” (Vyas, 2013)AFTERCLOUD : E– learning, employment of web services, retrieving data from shared pool ofresources – all this became possible with the assistance of cloud in education.Traditionally obtaining the knowledge was a one way process and in order toacquire access to large quantities material, a complex IT infrastructure wasrequired. Universities and schools had to maintain traditional library withcumbersome duties of doing away with limited resources. Cloud gave birth toeffortless access and easy maintenance by discharging on demand services to vastmaterial.
Thereare few institutes in UK and US which have recognized cloud computing as anefficient way of learning. Microsoft Live @ Edu which is provided by Microsoftis suitable for Word Processing and has been adopted by Institutes. It providesE- mail and sky drive services to learners.
Microsoft office is also aconvenient way to provide access to students to view, edit and save theirdocuments in any PC (Naik, Ajay, & Kolhatkar, 2013) (Olanrewaju, Khan, Mueen, & Anwar, 2017). Another serviceoffered by Cloud regarding the education is GAE i.e. Google App Education.Google Docs, mail offer students an experience of learning with joint efforts.Consultation services, other than cloud services that is being offered in theEducational sector is being done by IBM Cloud Academy.
(Tashkendi & Jabeil, 2015) (Sultan, 2010) (IBM) TheCloud Computing Suppliers are making global platform ( for instance IBM Academy ) for teachers,students and other members of educational institute to communicate their views.As indicated by IBM, “Cloud computing makes it possible for educators andlearners to get access to a range of research tools and applications and alarge collection of learning material (Olanrewaju, Khan, Mueen, & Anwar, 2017) (Chibaro, 2015) The usage of Web 2.0 to facilitate learning throughthe internet and cloud is now being preferred. Even E learning or distancelearning which is accessible by virtue of network externalities will beincluded in cloud computing pedagogy. Students are increasingly availingbenefit by utilizing the information on virtual portals as and when required.
Even the contributions in this research paper are possible due to theattainable data from the web accessible via the internet. Whileover viewing cloud services in higher education, it is observed that studentsutilize these services differently in various assignments. The usage by thestudent is not mutually exclusive, i.e.
a single student may employ twoservices simultaneously.Figure1 : Adoption of Cloud Computing in Higher Learning Institutions: A SystematicReview (Rashidah F, Burhan K, 2017, p 9) (Olanrewaju, Khan, Mueen, & Anwar, 2017) BENEFITSOF ADOPTING CLOUD COMPUTATON IN EDUCATIONAL SECTOR Whenemployed in Educational Sector, cloud proves to be the ultimate requisite forquality and quantity based education. Its advantages prove the contentionsregarding its acceptance and execution. (Sharma, 2017)· Variety of services offered : In aneducational institute where computing is done on the basis of cloud, theassistance regulates in many directions. E learning solutions and distance learningmethods are made feasible due to the SAAS model of cloud, the charge of whichis derived through subscription or consumption basis.· Educators’ discretion : By utilizing thePAAS model of cloud, the educator may personalize the application offered tothe user(student) by employing tools and techniques.
· Data Capacity : Since the data isaccessed on web portals, the issues regarding the storage and maintenance areeradicated. Learners procure the data from a depository accessible via theInternet.· Cost and Time management. The educatorscan use external services offered by the third party. IAAS model’s relevancecan be comprehended in Cost and time management, by virtue of cloud usage.CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICE PROVIDERS IN EDUCATION :Few companies that offer educational service oncloud will help in improved deciphering of the endaevour. (Lakshminarayanan, Kumar, & Raju, 2013)1.
TheG Suite for Education : It is a productivity tool which enables the learnersand the teachers to share views, communicate and interact. A core service thatoffers educational facilities to its users. The tools are Gmail, Google Docsand other offering by Google.
2. MicrosoftLive @ Edu : It is designed to fulfill the educational needs of the institutesand faculty members. Educational institutes use these services on computers,mobiles, laptops etc.
The tools are Microsoft Sky Drive, Microsoft Outlook, OfficeLive workspaces Etc.3. AmazonWeb Services for Education : It delivers various services ranging from storageand computing to analytics and application. It works in accordance with therequirement of students in a learning institute. (Amazon) FUTURE PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES:The market of Cloud is only expected to rise in thenear future. The pace at which the technology is leading, the whole of theeducational system will operate by making IT as its base. There is a growingdemand of online courses (MOOCS)which provide skillsand educations by simply logging and getting enrolled.
Satellite classes arebeing broadcasted in several professional courses. The cost of participating inphysical discourse of education is eliminated, thereby augmenting the interestof the learners’ and students in an area. Distribution of knowledge byutilizing Drop box and other facilities aids in vast reach of the requiredinstruments.On the other hand, challenges faced in functioningof Cloud are in following manner :Security issues : The data available on web servicesis subjected to security concerns. The application is vast and managed bypeople mainly over the internet. Thus, if the accessing of data is not impliedthrough proper protocol, the information may get altered and misused.Unaware users : The work procedure usually compelsuser to handover the intricate matters to the third party. The user becomesunfamiliar regarding the depth of the performance and hence is unable to actappropriately while facing issues.
CONCLUSION:The direction in which the Educational sector ismoving forward is appropriate for betterment of individuals and society atlarge. Change is inevitable and if the change is good there must not be anyreason to evade it. A country like India which is an amalgamation ofdiversified principles is indeed the finest client of Cloud computing. Withtime, the efficacy offered will be acknowledged exclusively by innumerableusers, so as to employ computing in routine practice. The benefits andchallenges are duly acknowledged in this paper whereby giving an outline of thepresent scenario and adoption of cloud..
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