Speaker 1

Affirmative action is needed in the United States to ensure racial parity in accessing resources and services availed by the government as well as the private sector. Racism is essentially defined as discrimination of individuals merely based on their race and color. Minority populations in the United States face discrimination in access to employment and services such as health, mortgages and financial services (Pierce, 19).

Racism is still present in the modern society even though in its overt forms which is socially and legally unacceptable. Racism is exercised in an individual basis in systemic levels of organizations. It is actualized selectively with the aim of selecting the preferred individual belonging to a specific race.

Speaker 2

Affirmative action is not necessary in the United States because there is no evidence of discrimination in access to employment as well as other vital services such as healthcare. The access to employment in the modern America society is solely based on the individual merit and skill to execute specific tasks in an organization (Pierce, 27).

Racism has been reduced given the aspect of globalization and the need for diversity. Diversity is essential in the workplaces, which necessitates modern organizations to access a wider range of the employment market for individuals with diverse skills irrespective of their race and color. The United States is essentially a country of diversity given the high numbers of individuals from cross cultures. Hence, affirmative action is not necessary as the society is evolving in an appropriate rate towards the realization of an equal society based on i9dnvidual skills and merit (Pierce, 31).

Speaker 3

Affirmative action is necessary from an educational perspective. For instance in applications for employment individuals are segregated based on their individual race even if they possess excellent educational qualities and skills. In access to education, some institutions are usually associated with some specific racial groupings. This creates a notion amongst the public of the need for segregation amongst races, which constitute a specific community.

Equality in access to education and employment is essential for setting up a strong foundation in modern societies. This would ensure creation of virtues such as hard work to attain good education and employment. People irrespective of their races and color would have equal access to employment opportunities. Employment rates among the various races are express indicators of the presence of the inequality amongst various races. Such should be met with resistance by ensuring the presence of equality to access of employment through legislation ensuring equality in access to education and subsequent employment opportunities.

Speaker 4

Affirmative action is not warranted because race is not a prerequisite in application and selection for employment opportunities. Essentially access to education is usually a determinant in access to employment. Hence, individuals who are unable to access good education are unable to access subsequent employment as they lack the skills and knowledge to assume available employment positions (Pierce, 39).

There is insufficient evidence to necessitate the need for affirmative action because of race. Affirmative action was a position assumed in the past, which enabled attainment of the present racial parity in access to resources and services in the American society. Affirmative action is not necessary as such programs tend to victimize the majority racial groupings in an entity as well in the society. Hence, it essentially results in discrimination of the larger racial grouping.

Work Cited

Pierce, Jennifer L. Racing for Innocence: Whiteness, Gender, and the Backlash against Affirmative Action. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2012. Print.


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