It the post-modern theories about identity; and see

It is the
self-reflectivity of the author as the representation of the identity and its
crisis, which is the focus of this study. This thesis’s purposes are to analyze
the abovementioned key terms in the context of the story to approach it through
the post-modern theories about identity; and see that there is no identity,
specifically related to us as human beings based on the modern reading of this
novel. Furthermore, it wants to say how shattered and multilayered our
personality is. There would be an existential reading for this notion in the
story, too. All meta-fiction, inter-textuality, and self-reflexivity in the
form and style of the novel are techniques of post-modern writings to highlight
and discuss the clashed identities in people. . Moreover, the novels are all
examples of detective mysteries. All of them are complicated but at the same
time attractive to the reader. We see names are interchangeably and repeatedly
used instead of other names. The author in a self-reflexive way uses his real
name or repeating others in the different part of the novel. Then as we go
further, we are doppelgangers of the characters in each volume. In general,
Auster plays with names to challenge the audiences and invites them to deal
with the concept of shattered and clashed identities. On the Transition from
Modernity to Postmodernity Transformations in Culture of preliterate culture,
as evidenced in mass television viewing and virtually communal forms of
interaction and information dissemination (for example, the Internet).This is
suggestive of an evolutionary reversal to structural features of an earlier,
more collectivized mode of identity formation and cultural existence, captured
in Marshall McLuhan’s sentient term the “global village.” Paradoxically, while
high-tech mass culture personalizes and privatizes modes of identity formation,
it simultaneously collectivizes the forms, sources, and technical means of this
process. The result is a global mélange of electronic communities—of
information, entertainment, trade, and politics—that have completely shattered
both private and public space as these have been historically understood. To
understand postmodernity as cultural transformation and excess, it is necessary
to dig more deeply into the modern-to-postmodern transition, tracing the
underlying connections between these cultural types.