Jazmynn Hardy Jan. 10Period 6Ap topicsive years after his death, political theorist, Niccolo Machiavelli’s “The Prince” has been published for all of Italy and Europe to see. Although, a copy of this piece under the name of “De Principatibus (of principalities) was being distributed in 1513, this copy has been printed by the Gutenberg Press and consented by the Medici pope Clement VII. “The Prince”is Machiavelli’s belief of how to acquire and maintain political power. The piece is in dedication of Lorenzo de Medici in which to discuss the conduct of great men and principles of  princely government. The 26 chapters are divided into 4 sections: Chapter 1-11 discusses types of principalities or state, Chapter 12-14 discusses types of armies and the correct conduct of a military leader, Chapter 15-23 discusses the character and behavior of the prince, and Chapter 24-26 discusses Italy’s frantic political situation. Machiavelli believed a good politician must defend, enrich, and bring honor to the state. He believed a good prince is supposed to be strict yet reasonable to keep people in check, rather than be nice and be walked over by people who are supposed to follow.

His approach seems to be a bit harsh but hopefully his advice will help Italy.   he uncontrollable tension between England  (Elizabeth I) and Spain (Philip II) during the good part of the previous century, issued an undeclared war, the Anglo Spanish War (1585-1604) . Philip II created the Spanish Armada a fleet of 130 ships to invade England. Philip II motive was to dispose Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism, and replace it with Catholic Monarch.

Due to spies, England knew all about the arrangement. The Armada chose not to attack English fleet at Plymouth, and failed to establish temporary anchorage in Solent. Due to this, one of their ships were captured by Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada finally dropped anchor in Calais to await communication from Duke of Parma’s army, but they were scattered by English fireship attack.

Battle of Gravelines damaged and seperated the Spanish Armada even more. Later, the Spanish Armada was able to regroup but they were welcomed with severe storms in the North Atlantic and a large amount of vessels were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Sadly, only a third of the 130 ship returned to Spain. Sources believe the reason why the Spanish Armada failed so horribly was due to Philip II’s plans miscarried, mismanagement, unfortunate weather, and efforts of the English and Dutch allies prevailed. Better luck next time Spanish Armada!     Breaking News: Martin Luther has released what seems to be a lengthy list of theses in oppose of the holy indulgences, and the Holy Roman Catholic Church is not happy! The “Ninety-five Theses” take royal jabs at the Roman Catholic Church indulgences.

These indulgences are supposed to exonerate someone from sin, and reduce and/or completely suspend time spent in purgatory, which is the period before heaven, says the Catholic Church. Martin Luther believes this is a load of crap, he believes that these indulgences are made just for the church to take money from the poor and use it to benefit their institution. Luther claims that the repentance required by Christ in order for sins to be forgiven, involves inner spiritual repentance and external confession. Basically, people should just own up to their sins and confess them outward to God.

He believe things should be about belief alone, repentance, and God’s grace. Many people feel like this will be the start of something revolutionary.  Interview with Henry Denis: Hello, this is Denis Montgomery and I am sitting down with Henry VIII. How are you today Henry?Henry: I am very well, how about yourself?Denis: Good, good. So you have just announced that you are divorcing Catherine of Aragon.Henry: Thank the Heavens!Denis: Yes… I guess. Can you enlighten us on why?Henry: Simple, she could not birth me a son, and I am in love with another.

 Denis: I see. Do you know why she could not have a son?Henry: I believe it is because she’s my brother’s widow and God is torturing me for marrying her. Denis: Interesting, and I see that you have broken from the Catholic Church. Henry: Yes, and that is because they will not let me divorce Catherine, and I believe that some of their philosophies are inaccurate. So, taking matters into my own hands, and I am head of a new Church of England!Denis: Wow! This amazing.Henry: I know! Now I can divorce Catherine, and marry my new love, Anne Boleyn! I see big things happening soon.

Just you wait!Denis: I can not wait, thanks for talking to me today Henry. Henry: The pleasure is all mine.  Today, marks the day of something sources are saying is epic. English mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton has just published his theories on what he calls the laws of universal gravitation. In his new book,  “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” lays the foundation of classical mechanics. Newton states that the law of universal gravitation is a particle attracting every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Newton states that this law derives from empirical observations called inductive reasoning. Although, Robert Hooke feels like Newton ripped off of him, ouch.

Newton’s law of universal gravitation and laws of motion are getting widely recognized by scientists, so way to go Newton.   French philosopher, Denis Diderot has just just released his Encyclopedia, which includes thoughts and theories of Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke, and Voltaire, all of which consider themselves Enlightened thinkers in our time period as of yet. Diderot believes this Encyclopedia is a rational dictionary of the Arts, Sciences, and Crafts.

Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote most of the music section in three months, and his thoughts on political economy are written in his “Social Contract”. Voltaire has  contributed to the Encyclopedia with history, elegance, and fire. Voltaire also dismantles the divine rights of kings. This does not float well with the church or King Louis XV. It also seems to be getting banned, so if you get a chance to snag a copy, get it quick and fast.     May 23, 1618 A foreshadowing war is making its way.

Recently, Bohemian resistance towards Habsburg authority may cause an uproar.  Also, Roman Catholic officials in Bohemia have closed down Protestant chapels. This has caused an assembly of Protestants that want to revolt. In addition, imperial regents William Slavata and Jaroslau Martinic were found guilty and thrown out the windows of the Prague Castle, which is causing even more outrage from the Protestants. Stay tuned.

  Interview with Frederick Denis: Hiya, this is Denis Montgomery back with another interview. Today I am interviewing Frederick the Great. How are you doing?Frederick: Just fine. Denis: Great.

Get it because you are Great… No? Okay, Prussia is becoming one of the best states in Europe. Can you tell us why your impact, has influenced Prussia so much. Frederick: I believe Prussia is becoming better and better each day is due to the fact that I wholeheartedly serve my state and I will do anything for  my state.Denis: Can you please elaborate. Frederick: Before I came to power I was just a brilliant military campaigner, now that I am running things I have strengthened the Prussian army so much to the point that other states admire them.

I have brought ideas of enlightened government  to the forefront, and I do believe my strict behavior has influenced heavilyDenis: Great to know. Anything else you would like to add.Frederick: I can happily state that the Prussian military and I have enlarged Prussia territories and made Prussia the foremost military power in Europe.Denis: Fantastic! 1688-89Recap: As of yet, now that James II is gone and his daughter Mary II and husband William III are now ruling, we are living in a Bloodless Revolution. Thank the Lord! Wealthy nobles are demanding rights from the Parliament. Acts are being issued like the Toleration of 1689, which is the act of Parliament granting freedom of worship to nonconformists, and the English  Bill of Rights, which allowed Protestants to bear arms and many freedoms. This revolution is also causing French thinkers to speak out against absolutism and British colonist to applause their Parliaments.

  1642-51Recap: A series of armed conflicts and political maneuvering are going down between the Royalists (known as the Cavaliers) and Parliamentarians (known as the Roundheads). Charles I who is leading the Royalists is going against the Parliament to settle rebellion in Ireland. Oliver Cromwell, political figure leading the parliament.  The kick off Civil war was named, “The Battle of Edgehill” in October 1642.

The battle resulted in the Parliament winning and Charles I was helped prisoner, but he assisted to have a second Civil war. During the second Civil war (1648-49), the Parliament won again and Charles was found guilty of treason and was beheaded. Word on the street is that a third Civil war may occur. Stay tuned.Update: (1649-53)Charles I, son Charles II is now king of Scotland and Oliver Cromwell’s forces are threatening his position.

A war was issued, in which the Royalist lost again and Charles II is now somewhere hiding in France.  Interview with Louis XIVDenis: Hey it is Denis Montgomery here with the one and only Louis XIV.Louis: You’re making me blush. Go on. Denis: So Louis, I heard you have just completed the Palace of Versailles!Louis: Yes! I am very excited. It is located 10 miles southwest of Paris, France at my father’s old hunting lodge, it is absolutely to die for!Denis: Wow, can you tell us what it entails? Louis: Of course, it houses the French government, so I can keep an eye on them.

Jokes. It’s full of paintings, sculptures, house of mirrors, and technological innovations. Outside there are fountains, it’s just divine. Denis: It sounds like ie. You stated that it houses the government. How many people can live there?Louis XIV: Around 60,000 give or take.

Denis: Wow! Finally why did you choose this site?Louis: It’s a symbol of royal absolutism and to embody classical French art. Denis:Great to Know!  Recap: 1713-1714The belligerents (Spain and other powers)  have signed the Treaty of Utrecht, which is a series of peace treaties made. One series was signed between France and other European powers. Second series was signed between Spain and other European powers. These treatises recognized Queen Anne as a Britain sovereign.

Recognized Victor Amadeus II as King of Sicily and Frederick I as a royal title. Spain gave Gibraltar to England, and Britain became a world leader. Most importantly, these treaties concluded the War of the Spanish Succession between Louis XIV’s France and the rest of Europe.

Recap: 1789Due to France’s financial crisis Louis XVI wanted to increase taxes on everyone including nobles and he also met with Estates General. Rumors spread that the king intended to repress the assembly and provoke the people. The king is forced out and is later executed by beheading.

Soon after, his wife Mary Antoinette is beheaded. They were both seen as useless and they did not really contribute to France. The beheading of the king was the beginning of something big, being the French Revolution.

  France is experiencing a new age, in which people are focusing on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy. Today’s people who consider themselves enlightened thinkers would be John Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Thomas Hobbes, and Mary Wollstonecraft. Locke opposes the divine rights of man, and believes people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Voltaire believes freedom of speech is the best weapon against the government. He speaks of the corruption of the government and intolerance of the Catholic church. Montesquieu believes the political power should be divided into 3 branches. Rousseau believes in individual freedom.

Thomas Hobbes, on the other hand, believes that all men are naturally evil. Finally, Mary Wollstonecraft is an advocate for women’s rights. These people believe they shape the Enlightenment.   1793-1794Recap: What people are calling the Reign of Terror is what’s taking over France. Besides the Civil war and counter Revolution, a lot of blood has been shed during the French Revolution. In an attempt to avoid street violence (September Massacre), men like Robespierre and Marat are taking violence into their own hands. That being said, the guillotine has been made to give painless deaths to anyone who is affecting France in the worst kind of way.

Committee of Public Safety decides who is an enemy of the state and they are then put on the chopping block. With Robespierre being in charge he also trying to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility, and Catholic Church. I have a feeling Robespierre will not succeed. 


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