Jurisdiction is the powerof a court to decide on a dispute. Jurisdiction can be classified into fourdifferent subcomponents: geographical, subject matter, personal, andhierarchical jurisdiction. Geographical jurisdiction is when courts areauthorized to hear and decide disputes arising within a specified territory. Acourt having geographical jurisdiction in a specific location is known as avenue. In state courts, venue can only be transported to another county and/ ordistrict within that certain state, the courts in this specific state has the geographicaljurisdiction of violating the criminal law. People who gets arrested forcommitting a crime in another state led to a major complication of geographicaljurisdiction. This can result in Extradition, the surrender of an allegedcriminal usually under the provisions of a treaty or statute by one authority toanother having jurisdiction to try the charge.
SubjectJurisdiction is also a court structure. It determines the kind of cases,typically misdemeanors and civil suits that deals with money, a court may hearand elect. Personal Jurisdiction also known as personum jurisdiction refers toa courts authority over person or establishment. Hierarchical Jurisdiction isthe difference in the courts purpose and tasks. In 1968, Congress created the U.S. magistrate judges to substitutethe position of the U.
S. commissioners. This purpose lead to a new judicialofficer in the federal judicial system to help increase assignments of the U.S.district courts.
magistrate judges are selected by the district courts andperform quasi-judicial task. Once selected, the full- time judges are appointedeight year terms and part time receive four year terms. In misdemeanor cases, magistrate judges may preside over trials, accept theguilty plea, and imposed sentencing.
In felony cases, they are accountable for preliminaryproceedings such as initial appearance, conduction preliminary hearing, appointcounsel, setting bail, and issuing search warrants. The most important rolethat magistrate judges have are assisting districtcourt judges dispose their growing caseload. District judges have controlover trails and written opinions adjudicating numerous categories of civildispute. In the Judiciary Act of 1789, each state had their own district court,no district court crosses state line. District judges are nominated by thepresident and is confirmed by the senate. U.
S. marshals, pretrial servicesofficers, probation officers, court reporters, law clerks, secretaries, andclerks help assist the judge. 350 Bankruptcy judges help support the districtjudges.
Circuit judges, normally a panel of three, evaluate the records incases appealed from district courts and write opinions ruling on the merits oflegal arguments in those appeals. In1948, congress expand the number of justices into eight people. Justices are nominatedby the president and appointed by the senate. Once a justice is selected thereare no mandatory age retirement, you have this position until their death or voluntaryleave their spot. The Supreme court is granted by the constitution jurisdictionover a limited number of cases. In order for a case to be granted writ ofcertiorari, a vote of four supreme court justices is required. The SupremeCourt has annual term that discuss rotating intervals sitting and recesses. Thejustices hear and give their opinions on a case, while recesses examine thecases on the docket and research and write their opinions.
Eighty is the limiton how many cases the Supreme Court will take on in a year.Trialcourts are mainly concerned with considering evidence to resolve accuratedecisions within the limits of the law. Appellate courts mainly evaluation thelegal decisions made by trial courts. Appellate courts exercise appellate jurisdictiondoes not hear testimony from witness, conduct trials, or use juries, theseactions take place in trial courts. A collection of judges makes the appellate courtsresults while one judge decides the verdict in trial courts.