Jurisdiction is the power
of a court to decide on a dispute. Jurisdiction can be classified into four
different subcomponents: geographical, subject matter, personal, and
hierarchical jurisdiction. Geographical jurisdiction is when courts are
authorized to hear and decide disputes arising within a specified territory. A
court having geographical jurisdiction in a specific location is known as a
venue. In state courts, venue can only be transported to another county and/ or
district within that certain state, the courts in this specific state has the geographical
jurisdiction of violating the criminal law. People who gets arrested for
committing a crime in another state led to a major complication of geographical
jurisdiction. This can result in Extradition, the surrender of an alleged
criminal usually under the provisions of a treaty or statute by one authority to
another having jurisdiction to try the charge.
Jurisdiction is also a court structure. It determines the kind of cases,
typically misdemeanors and civil suits that deals with money, a court may hear
and elect. Personal Jurisdiction also known as personum jurisdiction refers to
a courts authority over person or establishment. Hierarchical Jurisdiction is
the difference in the courts purpose and tasks.
In 1968, Congress created the U.S. magistrate judges to substitute
the position of the U.S. commissioners. This purpose lead to a new judicial
officer in the federal judicial system to help increase assignments of the U.S.
district courts. magistrate judges are selected by the district courts and
perform quasi-judicial task. Once selected, the full- time judges are appointed
eight year terms and part time receive four year terms. In misdemeanor cases, magistrate judges may preside over trials, accept the
guilty plea, and imposed sentencing. In felony cases, they are accountable for preliminary
proceedings such as initial appearance, conduction preliminary hearing, appoint
counsel, setting bail, and issuing search warrants. The most important role
that magistrate judges have are assisting district
court judges dispose their growing caseload.
District judges have control
over trails and written opinions adjudicating numerous categories of civil
dispute. In the Judiciary Act of 1789, each state had their own district court,
no district court crosses state line. District judges are nominated by the
president and is confirmed by the senate. U.S. marshals, pretrial services
officers, probation officers, court reporters, law clerks, secretaries, and
clerks help assist the judge. 350 Bankruptcy judges help support the district
judges. Circuit judges, normally a panel of three, evaluate the records in
cases appealed from district courts and write opinions ruling on the merits of
legal arguments in those appeals.
1948, congress expand the number of justices into eight people. Justices are nominated
by the president and appointed by the senate. Once a justice is selected there
are no mandatory age retirement, you have this position until their death or voluntary
leave their spot. The Supreme court is granted by the constitution jurisdiction
over a limited number of cases. In order for a case to be granted writ of
certiorari, a vote of four supreme court justices is required. The Supreme
Court has annual term that discuss rotating intervals sitting and recesses. The
justices hear and give their opinions on a case, while recesses examine the
cases on the docket and research and write their opinions. Eighty is the limit
on how many cases the Supreme Court will take on in a year.
courts are mainly concerned with considering evidence to resolve accurate
decisions within the limits of the law. Appellate courts mainly evaluation the
legal decisions made by trial courts. Appellate courts exercise appellate jurisdiction
does not hear testimony from witness, conduct trials, or use juries, these
actions take place in trial courts. A collection of judges makes the appellate courts
results while one judge decides the verdict in trial courts.