Knowing Is Half the BattleKam Shien-YiB1702319Department of PsychologyPSY 113Dr Prihadi KususantoMr Christopher Tan Jit Meng
Theexperimenter would play an audio-recorded description of the study during theconditions and different instruction were given respectively. The firstcondition was problem-solving condition, where the participants were told tocomplete an exercise to study cognitive processes. The second condition ismath-test condition, participants were asked to complete a test to study genderdifferences in mathematics performance, whereas the last condition,teaching-intervention condition, which is the same as the math-test condition,but in this condition researcher will inform the participants about negativeeffects about stereotype threat and includes an explanation about women’sanxiety and true abilities.
After that, participants were asked to complete aquestionnaire with two manipulation checks. Using 7-point scales, participantsrated on the perception on male researcher thought gender stereotype couldweaken performance on a test, and their perception on how the researcher predictedmen and women would differ in performances. Lastly, participants were told torate whether gender stereotype have influences on anxiety when tests to assessattribution. Findings – Findings have showed that stereotypethreat increased women’s confidence and encourage them towards success in theteaching-intervention condition by analyzing the perceptions of participants ofthe researcher’s expectation. In the manipulation checks, analysis showed thatparticipants in the teaching-intervention condition have perceived that themale researcher thought negative gender stereotypes could weaken performancecompared to the other two conditions. Women ratings were also higher on therole of gender stereotypes compared to men. Besides, in theteaching-intervention condition, mainly women participants than men think thatthe researcher expected men to outperform women compared to the other twoconditions. Furthermore, for the test performance, women and men were equallyaccurate in the problem-solving condition, whereas women were less accurate inthe math-test condition.
In the teaching-intervention condition, womenperformed equally to men in the same condition, to women in problem-solvingcondition, and even outperformed women in the math-test condition. Additionally,the analysis of attribution to gender stereotype suggested that in bothmath-test and teaching intervention condition, participants who are womenrather than men, reported that gender stereotypes led to anxiety, and weresignificantly higher in problem-solving condition. This showed that emphasizinggender stereotypes on tests would boost women’s belief that stereotypesinfluences their anxiety. However, informing participants about the negativeeffect of stereotype threat would be necessary to improve their performances. Future Research –Write & justify future research herebased on what the lead paper you have chosen has found.
PracticalImplications – Write & justify how the findingsof the lead paper you have chosen can be used in a practical way.