Life before the Industrial Revolution First and foremost, before the dawn of the Industrial Revolution Britain in the 1750s, most people worked the land and built handmade tools. They made everything by hand, from their own clothes to growing their own food. They lived in farms and only went as far as their feet or horse could take them, therefore they only new very little beyond their village. Plus, people had to rely upon themselves and their communities to get the vast majority of articles that they needed. Undoubtedly, life in Britain was the life of a farmer; people worked in villages and small towns, education was poor, and horizons were limited and life was slow. Since then Britain was largely rural, agricultural society. It was not until mid 1700s, a chain of events set motion to change the way people lived. Life Changes as Industry Spreads For centuries, people used their own power to perform their own manual tasks. It was not until engineer James Watt manufactured the steam engine that uplifted civilization to its maximum potential. Steam power was one of the most impressive innovations that brought a fundamental change in working principles. The steam engine, certainly, was faster, more powerful, and could work independently of natural power sources, such as water. Again, Watt’s engine became a key power source of the Industrial Revolution. The spark of this era was made possible by another revolution—the Agricultural Revolution, which greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of food. Additionally, the Agricultural Revolution created a surplus of food thanks to the new methods of crop rotation and pushing ahead with enclosure. Britain leads the wayThe beginning of the Industrial revolution can be credited to many factors, including population growth and copious natural resources. Statistics show that the Industrial Revolution contributed to a rapid growth of population, however, in order to increase production, money was needed to start business. The business class was another key ingredient to further stress the industry. People began using the capital to invest in enterprises, and managed the financial risks of starting a new business with entrepreneurs. This economic growth was supported by the stable government that britain had. Later on, the Industrial Revolution took hold of Textiles—Britain’s largest industry. In the 1700s entrepreneurs and british merchants developed the putting out system, distributing raw cotton to peasant families resulting to many working in their homes, but the production was slow, consequently increasing the demand for more cloth. New devices, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle, contributed to the revolution of the British textile industry. As productions increased, capitalists were able to invest in turnpikes for faster and cheaper methods of moving goods; soon Britain was linked everywhere and created a great revolution of transportation. The sudden impact was caused by the invention of the steam locomotive, firstly operating between the industrial cities of Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. Not only that, locomotives managed to replace canals thus they were much faster, alike the putting out system, it was replaced by factories since they made large quantities of goods more efficiently. Eventually, the Industrial Revolution dramatically affected the way people lived.Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution As the Industrial Revolution was taking over the lives of people, it brought a rapid urbanization. More and more people moved to the cities in search of jobs, however, many who were crowded into the new factories lived in poverty and harsh conditions. Individuals would suffer with the dangerous work conditions. Diseases easily spread due to the rotten sewages, which ultimately created an overwhelming stench and contaminated drinking water. The factory was the centre of the new industrial city. Workers were heavily imposed by their harsh new life because it differed greatly from working at a farm. Factories were dangerous for people because of the extensive working hours. Additionally machines injured many because there were no safety devices. The early industrial felt like an oppression, and reformers wanted to improve working conditions. Despite the social problems, the chaos was able to lessen thanks to the Labor unions right to bargain employees for better wages, working conditions and hours, At the same time wages rose, the cost of railroads travel fell and more people afforded to travel further and faster than before. This helped achieve a more fruitful quality of living. New ways of thinking Many thinkers tried to understand the staggering changes that the early Industrial age went through that made it so prevailing. Even though the revolution fostered new ideas about business and economics, many people were forced to to live under impecunious conditions: crowded slums, hungry families, unemployment, and widespread misery. Thinkers tried to find a solution to poverty, however, British laissez-faire economist, Thomas Malthus, argued that it was inexorable because population would soon outpace the food supply. He disagreed with the thought of families having too many children. Malthus was one of the thinkers who tried to understand the Industrial Revolution’s influence and stressed the idea that the natural laws should take over the world of business and economics. Following that, thinkers sought to modify laissez-faire to justify government intervention, and for people to freely exchange goods and services—british philosopher and economist Jeremy Bentham advocated utilitarianism. He was able to influence many, including philosopher John Stuart Mill. Meanwhile, others offered a radical solution to end poverty—socialism. Under this policy, the people will have the right to own and operate the means of production. Additionally, socialism came from the enlightenment idea that all men were generally good. For the time being, German philosopher, Karl Marx, formulated a new theory: he predicted that a communist might occur due to a struggle between classes, ending up with a classless society where everything is own by the community. German socialists believed Marx’s idea to form social democracy, which resulted to a slow transition from capitalism to socialism. Such society marked the end of struggles people endured in the Industrial Revolution.