(LINK)https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2713715The Concept of Marriage and itsForm: An Indian and Western PerspectiveInternational Journal of Scientific Research,Volume: 4 | Issue: 12 | December 2015 Written by: Jayashree KhandareBharatiVidyapeeth New Law College, PuneDateWritten: December 20, 2015In thisthesis the writer feels that, the concept of marriage and its form has majorlychanged and it has time become a status of symbol in society.

Two roles have a very great significance inlife. One is the economic role and the other is the marital or family role.Marriage is one of the universal social institutions. Primary object ofmarriage is to beget and bear offspring, and teach them until they are able totake care of themselves. Marriage is one of the deepest and most complexrelationships. It is the corner stone of society. It involves social sanction,generally in the form of civil or religious ceremony, authorizing two personsof opposite sexes to engage in sexual union. It is institution devised for theexpression and development of love.

Its purpose is not only the generation andnurturing of children but also enrichment of the personality of the husband andwife in which each other support and give the life of the other and both mayachieve completeness”. This was stated by Dr. Radhakrishnan.

Marriage isdefined as  “Marriage means the legalunion of a man and woman as husband and wife” Or “Marriage means the state ofbeing united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a legal,consensual, and contractual relationship recognized and sanctioned by anddissolvable only by law.”The diversity of marriage: “Pythagoreans taught that marriage isunfavorable to high intellectual development. On the other hand, the Phariseestaught that it is sinful for a man to live unmarried beyond his twentiethyear.”The main problem of modern culture is that we become biased towards ourown form of marriage and come to consider any other form wrong, stupid, silly,etc. Both people lack understanding that other forms of marriageare different and mean different things. (LINK) https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/49264-7-negative-impacts-of-marriage-s-decline 7 Negative Impactsof Marriage’s Decline.

(CNN journalist CarolCostello interviewed Kent State University students about marriage.)Throughthis we know that heterosexual students, both male and female, all lookedforward to getting married, the interview highlighted their limitedunderstanding on the impact marriage has on their own lives and on society. Decline in population, even a population Implosion. None of thestudents talked about abstaining from sexual intercourse, multiple configurationsof the family like single parent families, families with non-marriedco-habituating parents, etc. will be the natural result. Millennial have lost faith in marriagedue to an increase in divorce rates, cheating partners and people opting forlive-in relationships, for most young people marriage no longer remains apriority. They are more careers driven than the previous generations and alsothey are more interested in finding more about themselves and what change theycan bring to the world around them than getting married.

  SOCIAL IMPLICATIONSOF MARRIAGE(LINK) http://marri.us/research/research-papers/164-reasons-to-marry/164REASONS TO MARRYPat Fagan, AnneDougherty, and Miriam McElvainFebruary 8, 2012Marriages are given more importance only to set a good example for theirchildren such that they make a good name for themselves in a society. They aremore concentrated on how to survive in society to be the best among others.Here more preference is given to all tasks of society and only if the parentssucceed in mastering these tasks then they can come under good parenting. Itshigh time people realized that a marriage’s main purpose shouldn’t revolvealways around the society and how to set a wrong example of being competitivein it.

It is believed that Marriage is the foundational relationship for all ofsociety. It’s said that Good marriages are the bedrock of strong societies, forthey are the foundations of strong families. The future of the human race andall its component societies is embodied in each newborn. Marriage consists of fivebasic tasks of society: family, church, school, marketplace and government.These fundamental tasks, well done, in unity between the male and the female,make for a very good marriage. The child gradually learns to value and performthese five fundamental tasks of every competent adult and of every functional society.The future strength of our nation depends on good marriages to yield strongrevenues, good health, low crime, high education, and high human capital.

  (LINK) https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/49264-7-negative-impacts-of-marriage-s-decline7 Negative Impacts ofMarriage’s Decline(CNN journalist CarolCostello interviewed Kent State University students about marriage.)THE EFFECT ONTHE FAMILY ITSELF:Here it’s believed that Father-deprived children will have less of angerand the sexual drive and a more short-term outlook. This is said to weakentheir children’s futures. Their parents will have less financial resources.Earlier loss of virginity for teenagers, this results in more out-of-wedlock birthsor more abortions, this in turn leads to more of divorces for these children as they enter adulthood. Most of theyoung adults, keeps themselves as the first priority ahead of their kids lifeand in this process it wounds and weakens the kids.

PSYCHOLOGICALIMPLICATIONS OF MARRIAGE(LINK) http://americanvalues.org/catalog/pdfs/why_marriage_matters2.pdf%20WHY MARRIAGE MATTERS, SECOND EDITION(26 conclusions from the social sciences) Book written by: W.Brandford Wilcox, William j.

Doherty, Helen Fisher, William A. Galston, Norval D. Glenn, John Gottman,Robert Lerman, Annette Mahony, Barbara Markey, Howard  J.

Markman, Steven Nock, David Popenoe,Gloria G. Rodriguez, Scott  M.  Stanley, Linda J. Waite and JudithWallerstein.Thefollowing are the psychological implications of marriage mentioned in the book:1) Marriage increases the likelihood that fathers and mothers have goodrelationships with their children. 2) Cohabitation is not the functionalequivalent of marriage. 3) Growing up outside of an intact marriage increasedthe chances of that children will themselves divorce or become unwed parents.

4)Marriage is a virtually universal human institution. 5) Marriage and anormative commitment to marriage, foster high quality relationships betweenadults as well as between parents and children. 6) Marriages has important biosocial consequence for adults and children. 7) Divorce and unmarried childbearing increases poverty of children and mothers. 8) Married couple seems tobuild more wealth than divorced or cohabitating couples.

9) Marriages reducepoverty and hardships of children and mothers. 10) Minorities benefiteconomically from marriage: One study shows that black single mothers who marrysee their income rise by 81%. 11) Married men earn more than single men withsimilar education and job histories. 12) Divorces appear to increase children’srisk of school failure.

13) Parental divorce reduces the likelihood thatchildren will graduate from college and achieve high status jobs. 14) Childrenwho live with their own two married parents enjoy better physical health thando children in other family form: One study shows that divorce reduces theChilds life expectancy by four years. 15) Parental marriage is associated withthe sharply lower risk of infant mortality. 16) Marriage is associated withreduced use of alcohol and substance abuse both in adults and teens. 17)Married men have loner life expectancy than do otherwise. 18) Marriage isassociated with better health and lower rates of injury and disability for menand women. 19) Marriage seems to be associated with better health amongminorities and poor. 20) Children whose parents divorced have higher rates of psychologicaldistress and mental illness.

21) Divorce appears to increase significantly therisk of suicide. 22) Married mothers have lower rates of depression than doother categories. 23) Boys grown up in single parental families are more likelyto engage in criminal behavior. 24) Marriage appears to reduce the risk thatadults will be ether perpetrators or victims of crime. 25) Married women appearto have lower risk of experiencing domestic violence than do cohabiting ordating women. 26) Child who is not living with his or her own two marriedparents is at greater risk for child abuse.

(LINK) https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/49264-7-negative-impacts-of-marriage-s-decline 7 Negative Impactsof Marriage’s DeclineCNNjournalist Carol Costello interviewed KentState University students about marriageTHE EFFECT ONHEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH: The journalist states that a non married person has higher levelsof depression, anxiety, obesity, addictions to drugs and alcohol, more STDs andmore accidents and shorter lifespan.IMPLICATIONS OFMARRIAGE WITH RESPECT TO RELIGION(LINK) https://papers.ssrn.

com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2713715  The Concept ofMarriage and its Form: An Indian and Western Perspective (Written by: Jayashree Khandare)Concept of marriage in Hindus:According tothe author, In India Marriage is considered as an important ritual. Marriage isconsidered as one of the samscars of the hindu culture.. The fundamentalobjective of the Hindu society is considered to be the fulfillment of theSamskaras.

Hindu conceived of marriage as a sacramental union, as a holly union.A Wife is not only known as a ‘Ggrihaspstni’ but also a ‘Dharmpatni’ and’Sahadharmini.’ It is said that a contented and fulfilling married life makesthe man more confident and successful he who gets respect, love and pleasurefrom his wife always found to be more successful.Concept of marriage in Islam:Marriage issaid to be a civil contract signed by two parties, one for each side. Theconsideration of the contract is ‘Mehr’.muta marriage, is  a union between a man and a woman for aspecified  period.

The females weretreated as property of the males more like a subject to buying and selling. It was customary in the pre-IslamicArabs to lend one’s wife to a guest to manifest hospitality. It is consideredas civil contract as it is meant for procreation of children and to legalizessexual intercourse. Also it is considered as religious duty as ‘Ibadat’.

Therewere cases where women were protected against Talak which was frequently doneat the will of Muslim husbands to dumb their wife and marry a new one. Western Concept of Marriage:Westerntraditions are considered as a contract. The Protestants perceive marriage as acovenant where there is an association of different parties of community. Thejurisdiction of marriage shifted from the church to the local state government.In the eighteenth century, the contractarian model of marriage, which did notbelieve in marriage as a sacrament but looked at it as a bargain between thepartners was introduced. Although there is a freedom to marry with a person ofonce won choice a new trend has emerged popularly known as Honor Killing.

Caste and religion are integral partof society. These are all some of the ancient norms for marriages followed bydifferent cultures which are still been followed by many families that stick totheir tradition. All of these are meaningless as marriage is clearly thebonding of a man and a wife.

India is still more or less a traditional societywith rigid caste and religious system. Caste and religion play a major role inthe selection of mates in marriage. To most Indians it is difficult to think ofmarriage beyond their own caste. But now among the younger generation there isa change in the marriage pattern due to the impact of modernization  and globalization. (LINK) https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/49264-7-negative-impacts-of-marriage-s-decline 7 Negative Impactsof Marriage’s DeclineCNN journalist CarolCostello interviewed KentState University students about marriage.THE EFFECT ONRELIGIOUS PRACTICES:The journalist mentions that Retreat from married sexuality will resultin less religious practice.

 Religious practice is a universal ingredientto thriving on every outcome measured in the federal data system: health,mental health, happiness, education, marriage and child well-being. LEGAL IMPLICATIONSOF MARRIAGE (LINK) https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2713715The Concept of Marriageand its Form: An Indian and Western PerspectiveWritten by: Jayashree KhandareThe concept of marriage and its form has tremendously changed and it hassome time become a status of symbol in society.

The Special Marriage Act 1955,providing registration of marriage with no ceremony it also facilitatesmarriage between persons of different cast and religion. Gradually human society is progressingand developing with the institution of marriage though it may not be as strongas it use to be with lot of alternatives and forms and the rate of dissolutionof marriage has also gone up suggesting a new trend. Two roles have a verygreat significance in life. One is the economic role and the other is themarital or family role. Marriage is one of the deepest and most complexrelationships. “Marriages are not a mere convention, but an implicit conditionof human society..

Its purpose is not only the generation and nurturing ofchildren but also enrichment of the personality of the husband and wife throughthe fulfillment of their need for a permanent comradeship, in which each maysupplement the life of the other and both may achieve completeness”. This wasstated by Dr. Radhakrishnan.Marriage is defined as  “Marriage means the legal union of a man andwoman as husband and wife” Or “Marriage means the state of being united to aperson of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a legal, consensual, andcontractual relationship recognized and sanctioned by and dissolvable only bylaw.”WOMEN IN MARRIAGELINK) http://americanvalues.org/catalog/pdfs/why_marriage_matters2.pdf%20WHY MARRIAGE MATTERS, SECOND EDITION(26 conclusions from the social sciences) Book written by: W.

Brandford Wilcox, William j.Doherty, Helen Fisher, William A. Galston, Norval D.

Glenn, John Gottman,Robert Lerman, Annette Mahony, Barbara Markey, Howard  J. Markman, Steven Nock, David Popenoe,Gloria G. Rodriguez, Scott  M.  Stanley, Linda J. Waite and JudithWallerstein.From thebook the author mentions that: 7) Divorce and unmarried child bearing increasespoverty of children and mothers.8) Marriagesreduce poverty and hardships of children and mothers10) Minorities benefit economically frommarriage: One study shows that blacksingle mothers who marry see their income rise by 81%18) Marriage is associated with betterhealth and lower rates of injury and disability for men and women.

22) Married mothers have lower rates ofdepression than do other categories.25) Marriedwomen appear to have lower risk of experiencing domestic violence than docohabiting or dating women.(LINK) https://papers.

ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2713715The Concept of Marriageand its Form: An Indian and Western PerspectiveWritten by: Jayashree Khandare (In Hindumarriage)The fundamental objective of the Hindu society is considered to be thefulfillment of the Samskaras.

Hindu conceived of marriage as a sacramentalunion, as a holly union.Wife is not merely a ‘Ggrihaspstni’ but also’Dharmpatni’ and ‘Sahadharmini.’ A contended and fulfilling married life makesthe man more confident and successful.

(In islam) The females were treated asproperty of the males subject to buying and selling. It was customary amongst the pre-Islamic Arabs to lend one’s wifeto a guest to manifest hospitality. It is considered as civil contract as it ismeant for procreation of children and to legalies sexual intercourse. Also itis considered as religious duty as ‘Ibadat’.protection of Muslim woman againstTalak, which were very frequent at the will of Muslim husbands.

 

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