Management is the process of planningprogram, controlling program, objectively program and leading program.
According to Follet (1987) defines management as “the art of getting thingsdone through people”. Definition of indicates as managers achieveorganizational goals by making others to perform any necessary takes. Not byperforming the task themselves. Management also the efforts of the organizationmembers, of using all other organization source to achieve statedorganizational goals.
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Regarding that, management is a process which is managersengage with client or outsider specially public sector in certain interrelatedactivities to achieve their desired goals. Management use all the resources of theorganization to attain their goals which is finance, equipment, information andlast not least is people that most important resources,increase sales not onlyto motivate people but also need to increase the advertising budget so usingboth human and financial resources. Management involves achieving theorganization’s stated goal means managers try to attain a specific which isdelivery of services as an example report from head of state audit that whetherit’s really operating or not (follet,1987)Internal audits play an important rolein the public sector through their evaluation of the effectiveness of riskmanagement, control and governance processes that will increase accountabilityin the public sector (Mebratu, 2012). ThePrime Minister’s Department has issued a guideline through a letter dated 9June 2007 stating that the implementation of the internal control system in theMalaysian public sector is one of the strategies to reduce malpractice, fraud,corruption and misconduct ( Nadiah, Mohid & Zakiah, 2015). According to Robert & Micheal (2003)Process of hierarchical management occupied practical and academic attention.But such a focus captures to few of the challenges faced by today’s manager. Inthe 21 century, interdepence and the salience of information have resulted inan environment where organizational and sector boundaries are more conceptualthan actual, and collaborative and managerial responses are required tocomplement and in some cases even displace, bureaucratic processes. Cities andtheir public managers operate in a complex intergovernmental andinterorganizational environment.
leaders carry out a host of co-ordinatedfunctions that lead to excellence, excellence in the organization. the manageris the officer performing the management and administration functions of theorganization based on established procedures and guidelines. management isimportant in an organization and is the main machinery of organizers.
Management practices adopted bymanagement today are the result of management figures. Ideas, concepts andmethods that have been highlighted by these leaders can help managers managetheir organizations more efficiently, effectively and more competitive. Scientificmanagement is an approach that emphasizes scientific research to increaseemployee competence and increase organizational productivity. According to Frederick W. Taylor(1856-1915), this theory examines the relationship between the worker and thetask established to be carried out by the employee and believes that the timeand effort of the employee in the production of a unit is reduced by increasingthe specialization and division of work then the production process willincrease become efficient. In fact, believe that efficient workers will grow tobe efficient and at the same time will help increase production andproductivity. Scientific management principles is thedetermination of which movement is building scientific methods by determiningthe movement and work journey carried out to be more efficient.
With thisdetermination, work can be made faster and with higher or higher rates. Secondis Specialization work: Frederick Taylor has been thinking about the importanceof an expert in every part. For example, a mandate (as a leader) is required tobe responsible for the repairs of the machine, a person in the machine travelsection, a person on the inspection section and others. In that way, workerscan be self-employed in a particular field.Planned planning and scheduling:Planning and scheduling of organizational activities are necessary to ensurethe use of human resources and materials at appropriate places and times. Successfulselection and recruitment: Frederick Taylor believes that staff selection andrecruitment must be carefully crafted to ensure the staff they are taking toperform the task as desired. In this recruitment process, certain tests shouldbe conducted to test the capabilities and capabilities of that person.
Athorough selection process along with specific training programs can ensure ahigh level of performance in the task. Wage incentive which is the wage programheld is to pay wages according to the type of work done. This means that thewage program provides wage rates by type of work. Bonuses through the stimulusscheme are also given to employees who can complete the work earlier than thespecified time frame.
When the organization is considered asocial unit, it means that it has some employees who have been given a certainrole to carry out a task. They need to work together and connect with eachother to prepare a task. If they are doing the job without the need for serviceand cooperation from other parties, of course, the task is inadequate asrequired in terms of time, quality, quantity, and other determinations. Anorganization requires employees to unite their efforts to achieve the desiredgoals. If there is no unity among the workers, then the organization will notbe able to carry out its activities effectively and perfectly. The state of theorganization will be messing down without any specific direction.
Businesscombinations should exist within an organization to ensure that the achievementis listed. Relations among staff can ensure that the organization is movingperfectly, structured and effective. Coordination through the rules andprocedures can enhance the relationship between one function and anotherfunction and between individuals and other individuals. Each country is likened to a largeorganization where the government should provide sufficient physical facilitiesfor government machinery and staff to manage the country effectively. TheGovernment of Malaysia has provided good physical buildings and facilities inthe public sector for that purpose.
Taylor’s belief that man is rational andwill make an economic choice based on the level of financial reward has led toa payment system plan where the type of effort given is closely linked to therate of rewards offered. According HenriFayol (1841-1925) was given the title of “Father of Thought Management”First, Fayol has distinguished between technical skills and managementskills. Second, he has identified specific management functions and the three,he has recommended fourteen management principles. Technical Skills andManagement Skills Fayol divides management into six groups Techniques:Manufacturing and manufacturing, Commercial: Purchasing, sales and exchange(marketing), Finance: Optimal capital utilization, Security: Protectingproperty and man, Accounting: Costs, balance sheet, statistics, , Manage:Planning, preparation, directing, coordination, and control.Management is a broad field,encompassing social science fields such as sociology, anthropology, politicalscience, economics, as well as psychology. In fact, these skills can be gainedthrough the experience experienced by the management during the course of thetask.
Scientific management emerged as a result of the need to further enhanceefficiency and productivity through the use of human and physical resources andthe management of scientific theories is still in use today in today’s sectorincluded the best approach in management. Amitai Etzoni (1975) asserted that –”social units (human groupings) deliberately constructed and reconstructed toseek specific goals. Corporations, armies, schools, hospitals, churches, andprisons are included: tribes, classes, ethnic groups, friendship groups andfamilies are excluded. Organizational are characterized by: (1) divisions oflabor, power, and communication responsibilities, divisions which are notrandom or traditionally patterned, but deliberately planned to enhance therealization of specific goals: (2) the presence of one or more power centerswhich control the concerted efforts of the organization and direct them towardits goals; these power centers must review continuously the organization’sperformance and re-pattern its structure, where necessary, to increase,4Etzioni’s definition of organiza its efficiency; substitution of personnel, asan example uncapable person will remove from their job. The organization can also recombine itspersonnel through transfer and promotion.This can be seen in the management oforganizations that adopt the scientific management theory carried out goodfeedback from employees as an example of division of tasks according to theirrespective field of expertise which can avoid duplication of tasks. In generalscientific management theory known as application of the method and techniqueof science to organization. The approach adopted in the organization also leadsto the achievement of objectives namely, formally allocating people &resources, Individuals are happier if In that way, workers can be self-employedin a particular field which is clearly with specified job in organization, knowwhich is they fit in working in organization and clearly responsibility intheir position, clearly specifies operating procedures & mechanisms informal manual, Indicatesprocedures in decision-making showing where & how decisions are made withinorganization, the location of authority; and last not least is channels of communication, interpretation& participation (Follet, 1987).
Critized of scientific management theoryis that focused only individual performance than group performance because ourscenario in global world was shown that group performance is needed to be succeeded.Beside that, F.W Taylor was right in the sense that he could understand thefact that a true environment for application of scientific management pursuefor same goal, as labour management harmonious relationship can avoid conflict( Mizanur Rahman,2015). Reich (2007) stipulated that clearly that scientificmanagement theory was support autocracy that workers are bound to do as orderby their bosses or leader, they cannot voice out against policy worker, theywas felt burden with job, and working environment and nature of work.
Asmentioned by Robertson (1923), the separation of planning from implementationhad clearly created a platform for discrimination as it restricted workers fromviolating suggestion or opinion to improve planning process and the result wasvery dangerous which is resentment. As stated by Marshall (1919), scientificmanagement theory also critized by authoritarianism, although planningdepartment was established for efficiency, actually this department was provedcumbersome: planning department took all the decision and foreman and workmenhad to implement them without any saying. Scientific management exist if mentalrevolution that is labor management harmonious relationship exist. Theyinstruct foreman and workers and they are bound to implement the instruction. Thisshown that stakeholders or authority people or who are organizational leadersalso see this scenario pointing to workers only according to the orders of thesuperiors without objection. This causes the noise of dissatisfaction from thesubordinate workers to be heard.
Standardization has another pitfall thatis to be a prominent industrial leader. creativeness is necessary (Marshall).Mizanur Rahman (2015) mentioned that managers are created leaders rather thaninborn leaders, so we can call managers as leaders. a managers efficiency cannotbe judged through merely précising standards, rather by how managers can reactto situational changes: how their decision making impact on the planning andoperation on the free of changed situation. so in this case standardization isa bad yardstick. Marshall (1919) saidthat although it is claimed that replacing need of human handicraft byautomatic and semi automatic machines is a advanced system; from human point ofview, it actually make the work of human easy at the same time expense and alsoprice of killing labor skill.
effect of this make an increased of unemployedand workers fell they are exploited as they are not given due share, inincreasing profit which is due to their increased productivity.