MATRICS ConsensusCognitive Batter (MCCB) Test CritiqueTheMATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed by pharmacological associates and originally developed to be anendpoint for cognitive enhancement clinical trials, in hopes to better develop cognition in schizophrenia.(Nuechterlein etal.
, 2008, Kern et al., 2008).To date, there is limited data concerning the clinical and cognitive correlatesof the battery. Three recent studies demonstrate the sensitivity of the batteryto the general severity and pattern of cognitive impairments expected in peoplewith schizophrenia Today, the Measurement and TreatmentResearch to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MAATRICS) is a standardizedtest used for adults who suffer with schizophrenia or other disorders which arerelated and is in support of improving cognition in schizophrenia. The batterytest has also been looked at to use in clinical trials with patients withbipolar who show cognitive deficits. Thetest provides Evidence revealing thatcognitive shortfalls are primary features of schizophrenia, increasingrelationship support between cognition and function outcome and has beenincreased regarding the basic studies of neuropharmacology and cognition. The MCCB completekit includes Manual, 25 MCCB Administrator’s Forms, 25 MCCB Respondent’sBooklets, 2 Software Disks in plastic sleeves (one with the CPT-IP and thesecond with the MSCEIT™ and MCCB Scoring Programs, 1 Scoring Template for theBACS Symbol Coding Task, 1 WMS-III™ Spatial Span Board, 25 HVLT-R TestBooklets–Form 1, 1 BVMT-R Recall Stimulus Booklet, 25 Executive Functions ModuleResponse Booklets–Form 1, and 25 NAB Mazes Test Record Forms–Form 1, in an MCCBbox.
There are several retest kitsavailable depending on the need of the administrator. Each kit costs $550.00.The MCCB Battery test is in hard-copy form. Completion of this test on-line is not anoption, it is not available. The testcan be administered in individuals 18 years of age and older and administrationof the test takes approximately 60-90 minutes from start to finish. Once the test is administered, the scoring ofthe battery test is initially hand-scored to obtain raw scores.
Once hand-scored the raw scores are entered intothe computer program. Once that is completed,T- Scores and Percentiles are generated and seven cognitive domains result ingraphic profile when then Produces a data file for export. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition inSchizophrenia (MAATRICS), Consensus Cognitive Battery test was originallypresented in a Journal in 2008 in three separate articles. Since those articles were published the MCCBhas been evaluated and scrutinized in a way that most other test batteryassessments have been.
However, overtime the strengths of the MCCB have increased according to (Keefe, RS, 2011)TestDescriptionThe Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition inSchizophrenia (MAATRICS), Consensus Cognitive Battery test initially wasdesigned to develop a pathway for drug approval. The FDA would not approve any type of drug toenhance cognition in an individual with schizophrenia because they demanded aconsensus on domains, measurement and study design (Green et.al., 2011). The components of the MCCB i.
e., raw scores, T-scores andpercentiles were selected through both consensus and data collection. Coming to an agreement on the cognitivedomains was the first step to be presented in the schizophrenia trials. Once that step was established and domainsagreed upon the next step was to select a test based on prior criteria ofdomain level. L The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition inSchizophrenia (MAATRICS), Consensus Cognitive Battery test is a standardizedtest used for adults who suffer with schizophrenia or other disorders which arerelated and is in support of improving cognition in schizophrenia. As mentionedabove the battery test has also been looked at to use in clinical trials withpatients with bipolar who show cognitive deficits.
The test focuses on and produces scores on Seven cognitive domains; 1) Speed of processing using the Assessment in Cognition(BACS) Symbol Coding;2) Attention/Vigilance, using continuousperformance Identical Pairs (CPT-IP); 3) Working Memory/Verbal using Westler MemoryScale – 3rd Ed.; 4) Verbal Learning using the Hopkins VerbalLearning; 5) Working Memory/Non-verbal using Spatial SpanLetter-Number Span; 6) Social Cognition, using Mayer-Salovey-CarusoEmotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): ManagingEmotions7) Reasoning and Problem Solving, usingNeuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Mazes The Speed of Processing cognitive domainis a paper and pencil test and is timed. The correction key is used to identify symbols ofnonsense.
The oral test required thetest-taker name as many animals as they can in a one minute timeframe. The last portion of the Speed of Processingthe test-taker uses a pencil and paper to draw a line to connect consecutivenumbered circles placed randomly on the sheet of paper.The Attention/Vigilance cognitive domainis a computer administered test where the test-taker presses a computerizedbutton for matching numbers consecutively.Working Memory, the Non-Verbal CognitiveDomain consist of 10 cubes that are placed randomly.
The object is for the test-taker to tap thecubes in the same order that the administrator taps the cubes. When orally administered, the test-takermentally records strings of numbers and letters then repeats back to theadministrator (Tomida, 2010).Verbal Learning cognitive domain iscomprised of 12 words from three taxonomic categories. The 12 words are presented to the test-takeand the test-taker recalls as many of the words as possible after the learningtrial of each of the three.Visual Learning cognitive domain consistsof the test-taker reproducing six geometric figures from memory his or hermemory.Reason and Problem Solving cognitivedomain is completed with paper and pencil and is timed.
The test-taker completes a series of sevenmazes with each of the seven increasing in difficulty. This test has been proven to help to seeforesight and planning.Social Cognition cognitive domain iscompleted with paper and pencil. Thetest is a series of multiple choice questions and assesses how an individualmanages emotions based on those multiple-choice questions. The above mentioned cognitive domaintesting processes are administered to individuals that are 18 years old andolder. The test is a standardized test used for adults who suffer withschizophrenia or other disorders which are related and is in support ofimproving cognition in schizophrenia.
As mentioned above the battery test hasalso been looked at to use in clinical trials with patients with bipolar whoshow cognitive deficits the series of tests are professionally administered and willtypically take anywhere from 60 minutes to 90 minutes to administer. Once each of the separate tests arecompleted, the results are hand scored and Software Administration scored,meaning they are both manually and computer scored. The computer scoring is the final of the twoscoring mechanisms and produces data files for export. The administrator first inputs the raw scoresinto the computer scoring program.
Onceentered, those raw scores are generated into T-Score percentiles. At this point is where the seven cognitivedomains are created into a graphic profile and finally exported into other programs and/oranalysis.TechnicalEvaluation The below seven propertieswere decided by the Neurocognition Committee to be the most relevanttesting/assessing cognitive change with individuals diagnosed withschizophrenia and similar disorders to include usein clinical trials with patients with bipolar who show cognitive deficits.
Test-restest or short-term stability improvedto be the most beneficial and critical of the battery designed test becauseit’s sensitive to cognitive change. TheMCCB was measured over a four-week period along with Pearson Product. The Pearson product revealed a measurement ofminimal stability at only .70. Whereasrepeated testing measures of the MCCB revealed a small practice effect on thetest of the individual when administered four-weeks apart. The seven properties of the MCCB test thatwere recognized in support of Reliability andValidity are below.Scientifically validatedExtensive validity and reliability informationTest-retest reliabilityUsefulness as a repeated measureRelationship to functional outcomeTolerability to respondentsPracticality for test determinationAccording to Kern, RS,2008, the individual neuropsychological tests that are included in the MCCB arescientifically validated. For moreinformation regarding the MCCB Technical manuals have been produced and areavailable to the public.
These manualswill provide extensive information regarding the validity and reliability ofthe MCCB test. In addition to the e seven properties Normative Data allows forthe MCCB to include corrections for age and gender; age, gender, and education;or there may be no demographic correction. In any of the scenarios a T-score and percentile can be accessed.
Making for a flexible demographicresult. The Normative Data that caninclude corrections is Age/gender correction or; Age/gender/education correction or; Nodemographic correction and; T-scores and percentiles are accessiblePracticalEvaluationThe MCCB Battery test is in hard-copy form the clarity andcomprehensiveness of instructions, directions and guidance that is provided, isprovided by and administered by a certified administrator. Because the test is designed to beadministered to adults who suffer with schizophrenia or other disorders whichare related and is in support of improving cognition in schizophrenia as wellas clinical trials with patients with bipolar who show cognitive deficits thetest is not complex with a lot of graphic designs. The presentation is clear and simple toprevent the test-taker from becoming overwhelmed and frustrated beforebeginning the test (Fiszdon, 2003). The test can be administered in individuals 18 years of age andolder and administration of the test takes approximately 60-90 minutes fromstart to finish. Once the test is administered,the scoring of the battery test is initially hand-scored to obtain rawscores.
Once hand-scored the raw scores are entered intothe computer program. Once that is completed,T- Scores and Percentiles are generated and seven cognitive domains result ingraphic profile when then Produces a data file for export. SummaryEvaluation and CritiqueAt one point the MCCB test was only availablein English which was a limitation, today the MCCB is professionally translatedand available commercially in over 20 languages. In addition, representative normative data invarious key Countries has been collected and the data gathered is used to createinternational scoring programs.
AlthoughMCCB has demonstrated impressive psychometrics there are some area s ofweakness or limitations. The MCCB does not provide an option forsocial cognition composite since domain has only one test. Therefore, leaving a gap because it isunknown how the performance of the MCCB relates to such basic measures ofcognitive ability such as how the domain scores interact with each other and inintelligence. On a positive note, the relationship betweenMCCB performance and basic cognitive abilities has been investigated. Now presenting data on the distributionsscores of MCCB to enhance clinical cognitive ability as well as use data on thedistributions of MCCB scores to enhance clinical interpretation of performanceand report on the relationship to symptomatic state, and the key outcomedimensions of work and social functioning.According to (Nuechterlein K, 2008), Aftermulti testing and clinical trials the MCCB is inspiring and validatesremarkable psychometrics. The test hasshown understanding toward improvement from interventions, especially forcognitive training interventions.
In summary, TheMeasurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia(MAATRICS), Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) has shown positive results. The test supports excellent reliability,nominal practice effects, missing data is minimal and there are significantrelationships with functional measurements (Green, 2011, Nuechterlein,2008). However, the MATRICS ConsensusCognitive Battery (MCCB) is developed and used only in clinical trials forschizophrenia for adults ages 18 and older. I believe there is a dire need for development of testing norms for theyounger population.
Schizophrenia andbipolar signs and symptoms can come on in early stages of life. Neurocognitive impairments are a fundamentalproblem, beginning as an adolescent during the premorbid period and continuingthroughout life with individuals with schizophrenia. At present the only reliable and validtesting assessment is designed for an older population, we are not meeting theneeds of our younger population. Thereis an entire world of 18-year-old and younger that also have the need andrights for appropriate testing assessment.