Ensuring that the Drawing material are complete accurate and comply with the
Design information and technical Industry Conventions

Learn to
Draw Accurate Facial Features, Expressions and Body Languages


can be done with the eyes alone. The interplay of eyelid, iris position and
pupil size creates subtle but perceptible differences in expression, as the
eyes are the main point of focus in a face. They dominate the whole expression,
so make sure you have the eyes right before focusing on the rest. In the
Emotion Tree, the eye opening and state of the pupil are described with the
terms in bold, as defined below:


The eyebrows are very subtle. I find that the least
change brought to the eyebrows can change the expression I’m drawing. For our
purposes we can divide the eyebrow into two parts that can move
semi-independently: the head and the curve. I say semi- because the one always
ends up pulling the other a bit. They can both be at rest, raised or lowered,
and the combination of these two contractions achieves expressions as
shown in this table:

The Emotion Tree

This is my classification of 58 common facial expressions,
most of which can be combined together if needed. From the Blank face,
it branches out into five great emotions: Relaxed, Surprised, Smiling, Angry
and Sad. The characteristics of each expression are detailed



The blank face is the starting point for all
emotions, but is discussed here to be distinguished from the relaxed face. In
reality, the blank or neutral face is the relaxed face, but
does not necessarily look it. People’s individual features interfere; some
people when totally relaxed look like they’re frowning, others look like
they’re smiling. So on paper, to make a face look blank, we need the following

The face has no expression but is not slack. 
The eyebrows are neutral.
The eyes are alert but can be relaxed for a
blank-and-unfocused look.
The pupil is tangent.
The lips are closed and neutral (straight horizontal


To distinguish this, on paper, from the blank face,
we need to emphasize the feeling of relaxation.

Turn the mouth slightly up. The smile is almost imperceptible
but makes it clear this is a rather pleasant feeling.
The eyebrows are still neutral
The eyes are relaxed, pupil covered and comfortably dilated.


The inner peace and serenity manifest in the absence
of any tension in facial features.

The only real difference with “relaxed” is the closed eyes,
as if in trust and surrender.
The fact the eyes are closed makes the eyebrows droop a
The eyelid and area around relaxed closed eyes are smooth,
with the lower eyelid curving up.


“Aahhhh…” This is the face that sells cleansing
products and pleasant smells!

The only real difference with “Peaceful”: the smile widens
and lips part in an instinctive reaction to something that pleases the
senses. Note that if the stimulus gets stronger, it results in the
“Savouring” face.


“Mmmm…” The senses are pleased!

The smile widens, the corners are compressed, dimples may
The eyes are still closed, for the same reason.
The head tilts back as the chin is raised – moving back from
worldly things to better focus on the feeling.


The heavy eyelids combined with a smile betray the
fact this person is not only “relaxed”, but has every intention of being idle.

The eyes are sleepy, pupils at least half-covered: the tonus
in the eyelids is less than the normal waking state.
Even the eyebrows are flatter than usual.
The smile is slight – less effort!


The loss of tonus is no longer something enjoyed,
but is due to loss of energy.

The head droops forward a bit.
The eyes are sleepy.
The eyebrows are plaintive.
Pockets start to show under the eyes.


No energy left, everything slumps.

The head droops noticeably.
The eyebrows are more plaintive, even painful.
The eyes can barely stay open.
The pockets are emphasized.
The jaw is relaxed enough to drop slightly.


Nodding off.  It’s a different kind of
tiredness, not due to overexertion, and as a result no strain shows (unless one
is both tired and sleepy).

The eyebrow is strained over the eye we’re trying to force to
stay open.
The head nods forward and very likely also tilts to one side.
The other eye and eyebrow are totally relaxed as if asleep.
The mouth is neutral.


“Huh? What? Where’s my coffee?” That state where
we’re emerging from sleep with great difficulty, like on Monday mornings.

The eyes are unfocused and bleary.
The eyebrows are bewildered.
The mouth is confused.


“Dead bored” is an insightful expression:
All the features are horizontal, as if seeking to be more blank than a blank

The eyebrows at their flattest and low on the eyes.
The mouth is slightly turned down (boredom is not pleasant), but
not enough to look like there is an effort involved.
The eyes are sleepy.

Body Expression

We rarely express our feelings through our face
alone: the whole body is the seat of unconscious gestures. Using them will make
your characters look less stiff and much more natural. The hands are
particularly expressive, and hand gestures have been mentioned under the
relevant expressions. Here are some common and conspicuous body postures
illustrators are sure to use:

on Hips:

Palms on the hips, fingers forward, elbows bowed

Classic sign of confidence
Shows the body is ready to step into action, get to work etc
Enlarges the upper body, making one look more powerful and
threatening in a confrontation (or when grounding kids)
Also means “Keep away from me, I’m feeling
Note that when the thumbs are forward, the posture is more
feminine and signals uncertainty rather than aggressiveness.


Classic defensive stance
Disagreement, closing oneself to input, arrogance, dislike.
Women don’t cross their arms around men they like.
Self-comforting posture, used to alleviate anxiety and social
Arms and elbows pulled tightly into the body signal acute


We unconsciously touch our bodies to comfort or release
stress. Perplexity, disagreement, frustration, uncertainty manifest in the
fingers touching the lips, the hand scratching the head, holding the neck,
grabbing an earlobe, rubbing the cheek, massaging the other hand, etc. Self
manipulations increase with stress and disapproval.

It is particularly effective to show repressed anger
through these cues, as they are often a way of displacing the aggressiveness. Note
that in young children, the hand behind the head can express jealousy.


PC2 Ensure that the Drawing Cleary
shows the Visual Effects at key stages Intend by the Decision Makers


“The composition should be simple, and it should be about one
thing, or concept. A deft artist can make even the most ordinary subject
interesting. As in poetry, how you say something is as important as what you
are saying. Keep in mind –

SIMPLICITY: “When in doubt, keep it simple. Less is more.”

PLANNING: “Take the time to plan out your composition.”

ASYMMETRY: “Interesting paintings have a harmonious balance (not
equal amounts) of opposites, such as cool and warm, dark and light, thick and
thin texture, detail and ambiguity, and hard and soft edges. The unequal
treatment of these elements is pleasing to our senses.”

FLOW: “Seek an interesting flow of eye movement—avoid a static

ARMATURE: “When I am choosing an area to place a subject of
interest, I strive to adhere to a harmonic compositional armature, such as the
golden mean. This and other armatures are derived from harmonic musical scales,
translating what is pleasing to our ears to proportions that are pleasing to
our eyes.


3 Key Principles of Landscape Drawing

Strive for the gesture and character of your main concept from the

“You want to take in the whole picture from the start,” Kegler
says. “This is where the importance of a thumbnail comes in. The thumbnail is a
way to say that your image is a statement about this subject, this lighting,
this atmosphere, this time of day. It reveals what it is that you’re really
trying to create a painting about. With a pencil, you can get this down very
quick in a thumbnail.”

Work from big towards small. “Once you have your concept, the
quickest way to capture it is to get your big values set,” the artist says.
“Start with your big sky value, your big land masses, flat planes, and any
uprights. Once you have those large masses in, everything else will fall into

Work from general to specific. “This follows the same concept as
the previous principle. Start general then add the big details, and finally the
little ones.”

Why Perspective and Perception Go Hand-in-Hand

Although the fundamentals of perspective drawing
seem to be rather straight to the point, the possibilities of how you can apply
perspective in your art are vast. In fact, perspective is nearly synonymous
with perception.

What I mean by this is you can use the principles
of this technique to create your own perception of the world around you through
your art. You have the power of illusion, the ability to make the viewer see
what you want them to see, literally at your fingertips. You can alter how your
art is perceived—all by just conquering the basics of perspective drawing.



Perspective – This is what makes the drawings seem realistic; even
after knowing the anatomy and the structure of the human figure, figures or
images might not seem realistic unless you can relate the various parts of the
figure to the eye level or to the horizon. This relationship is known as
perspective. Perspective in the figure actually means that all the parts of the
figure are related to a particular eye level. The perspective of the same
figure will change as per the level at which you view it – from above, below or
from directly in front of the image. Perspective is another way to place a
drawing in space, by creating depth and giving the object a feel of actually
existing in a given space. Drawing with perspective in mind allows one to place
the image in the foreground, middle ground or background. There are three types
of perspectives.  One-point
perspective uses one vanishing point placed on the horizon line. 
Two-point perspective uses two points placed on the horizon line.  Three-point
perspective uses three vanishing points.

point perspective –

One point perspective is a type of linear perspective. Linear
perspective relies on the use of lines to render objects leading to the
illusion of space and form in a flat work of art. It is a structured approach
to drawing. One point perspective gets its name from the fact that it utilizes
a single vanishing point.

In this, there is only one vanishing
point, which is always within the image itself. Vanishing point is the point
obtained by extending the edges of the objects that are parallel to each other
that converge at one point.




Two point perspective drawing is a type of
linear perspective.  Linear perspective is a method using lines to create
the illusion of space on a 2D surface There are two vanishing points in this
that are on the same horizon.


Three point perspective –

Three-point perspective is actually the least used form
of linear perspective.  This is ironic since three-point perspective is
actually closer related to how we actually see things.  In the world
of drawing, however, three-point
perspective is most commonly used when the viewer’s point of view is extreme.

Three-point perspective
is a good way to consider this viewpoint would be to imagine you looking up at
a very tall building or perhaps looking down from a very high distance.
 These extreme vantage points would best be depicted using three point
vanishing points are on the same horizon; the third is either above or below
the horizon line. This helps the viewer of the image to focus on these points
wherever we want him to be looking either above or below the horizon line.







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