Moyer of schools and 138 teachers and community

Moyer (2012, p.285) surveyed more than 700 Heads of schools and 138
teachers and community members. He said that the most responsible person for community
involvement was a school Head. He found that for effective involvement of a
community, a Head teacher should plan four steps as the condition to success
for effective community participation. These steps were (i) readiness to accept
credit and use community resources, (ii) suitable selection of community
volunteers inclusive of all the sections of a community (iii) assigning of
objectives and responsibilities to each community worker, and (iv) training of
community volunteers. He said that community involvement was a high-risk
phenomenon with no guarantee of success; different schools can produce
different outcomes. It was, therefore, necessary to involve a rational
proportion of community. He incorporated an important table in his article,
which showed (i) type of community involvement, (ii) probable assignments for
that community, (iii) criteria for effectiveness of its involvement, (iv)possible
outcomes of its involvement and (v) performance evaluation of its

            Benedetto et al
(2002, pp.1-5) said that a Principal must develop a strategy for school-
community relations which should consider community’s value and power hierarchy.
According to them a Principal can (i) interpret school programs for the community,
(ii) communicate with parents, (iii) arrange visit for parents, and (iv) coordinate
with parent’s associations. They said that a Principal can recruit community-minded
teachers and select such teachers who should be beneficial for their
communities. They advised Principals to participate in civic activities outside
their schools. They said that a Head teacher might encounter some problems like
(i) losing control over their administration, (ii) differences in opinions with
community members, and (iii) teacher’s hesitation to cooperate with the
community. The article said that a Principal can evaluate school-community
relations by (i) determining the needs of community for various programs, and
(ii) by surveys of staff members in various public and social places.             According to the article a Head
teacher can increase involvement of community by (i) inviting parents, (ii)
development of a community file, (iii) career planning days, (iv) holding
parent’s conferences, (v) allowing school facilities for community use, (vi)
recruitment of community volunteers (vii) mailing school newsletters, (viii) developing
a volunteer program and (ix) arranging joint tours of school and community.

            According to a
report of UNICEF, the decision of a Head teacher was like a barometer of a
school’s child-friendliness. A friendly admission policy of a school Head could
be helpful in increasing enrollment; his struggles to develop and train his teachers
could improve class room standards. His adequate involvement could raise curriculum
standards. He should work with other government agencies and should promote
link between school and community. According to the report, a successful Principal
should concentrate on the four broad goals (i) promotion of powerful teaching-learning
techniques to provide educational achievements (ii) cultivation of effective sense
of community involvement, (iii) expansion of student’s social behaviour, and
(iv)development of families’ educational culture (UNICEF, 2009).