mubara-ah The dissolution of a marriage facilitated by a monetary payment. Also, a form of divorce in which the wife comes before a judge and forsakes all her financial rights in return for divorce. The financial rights may include the dowry she has already received from her husband and the delayed dowry that she would have expected at the time of his death or if he divorced her. It could also include part of the financial support he gave her during their marriage as well as financial compensation over and above what she has received from him. Such a divorce is always a baynuna sughra, which does not prevent the couple from remarrying if they so wish. However, if the mubara-ah divorce is the third time the couple has divorced, then it is baynuna kubra, which prevents their remarriage without an intervening marriage between the wife and a third party. In a baynuna sughra, the divorce is irrevocable, so the husband cannot take back his wife unless she has agreed, a new marriage contract is signed, and a dowry is paid to her.
mudarabah, mudaraba (alt. sp. of mudharabah).
mudd A dry measurement equalling two handfuls, or one quarter of a saa’, or roughly 750 ml.
mudharabah, mudaraba, modaraba A business agreement made between two or more persons whereby one or some of them provide finance, while the other or others provide the management and expertise to run the business. Any profit is shared by them in a pre-agreed proportion, but should there be any loss, it is borne by the financiers proportionate with their total capital share. The financier is known as the rabb al-mal; those running the business or providing the expertise are called the mudharib. Under this arrangement there is no risk of loss to the parties running the business. The only potential for loss is borne by the financier. In terms of banking under mudharabah, depositors may earn a share of either the bank’s profit or the profit of a specified investment. If the investment or bank incurs a loss, no profit is paid to the depositors.
mudharib, mudarib The person or persons charged with the day-to-day running of the business in a mudharabah arrangement. They stand to lose nothing but their time if the business collapses or makes a loss, as all the financial risk is borne by the investor (rabb al-mal).
muezzin The person who calls Muslims to prayer from the top platform of a minaret in a mosque. Nowadays, the job is more likely to be done via a microphone and speaker, although the speakers are often still placed in the minaret.
mufawadah An equal and unlimited partnership.