Mushrooms well medicinal values but it is also

Mushrooms are important for their food values as
well medicinal values but it is also popular due to their delicacy and flavour
(Chandra and Samsher, 2006). A. auricula
contained 18.3g protein, 18.9g carbohydrates and 50g dietary fiber per 100g of
dry fruit body (Khan et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2007 and Ma et al., 2010) and it
plays crucial role in China mushroom industry due to containing of high
nutritional value therefore to be processed into a variety of foods (Fan et
al., 2009). According to Usha and Suguna, (2014) A. polytricha has high carbohydrate (28.5 %), protein (36 %) Crude
fibre (22.35%) content but low fat (3.40%) content and it make them a much
ideal food item for diabetic, cancer and cardiac patients. This high protein
and low fat characteristics of the edible mushrooms has been previously
reported by many researchers (Diez and Alvarez 2001; Longvah and
Deosthale1998). A. auricula-judae is
a poor source of protein containing about three times lower protein than Lentinus connatus and Pleurotus ostreatus (Celestine et al.,
2015) in Spain, similar finding was also observed by other researchers from
different countries (Kakon et al., 2012 and Gbolagade et al., 2006) in case of A. polytricha. The proximate and mineral
element compositions of five wild growing mushrooms species in Abakaliki area
of Nigeria was investigated by Celestine et al., (2013) They found that A. polytrichia had the least amount
protein (3.77%) but highest amount of carbohydrate (80.85%) where as P. ostreatus had the highest amount
protein (16.35%) but least carbohydrate value (44.41%) studied in Nigeria. They
also reported that mushrooms are also good sources of nutritionally important
mineral elements but they did not contain toxic levels of Cd and Pb. The
proximate composition, mineral element components of two selected wild edible
mushrooms like, Lentinus squarrosulus
and A. politricha from three regions
from the center of Côte d’Ivoire was investigated (Anno et al., 2016). Anno et
al., (2016) observed that this two mushrooms contained high level of proteins,
crude fibre, carbohydrate, ash but fat content was very less and rich in
potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium but Cd and Pb contents of both
species was generally very low. Similar finding was also reported by Okechukwu
et al. (2011) where the protein content was 10.50% and 14.88% in A. polytrichia and P. ostreatus, respectively, in Nigeria. Hung and Nhi (2012)
observed that in comparison to other studied mushrooms, A.  polytricha had protein
and lipid content was lowest but carbohydrate content was highest, in Vietnam.
The difference in protein contents of in different mushrooms is due to the
number of factors like, type of mushroom, stage of development, part of the
samples, level of nitrogen availability and the location (Longvah and
Deosthale, 1998). Gbolagade et al., (2006) and Johnsy et al., (2011) reported
that the ash content of A. polytricha
was 5.2% and 8.7% respectively, on dry weight basis. According to some
researcher generally, fresh mushrooms contain a relatively high amount of fibre
which may be responsible for its relatively high amount of ash (Cheung, 1998). A. auricula-judae contains 3.6% of ash,
12.5% of protein, 1.7% of fat and a large amount of carbohydrates (66.1%) per
dry matter in India.  A. auricula-judae contains 3.6% of ash,
12.5% of protein, 1.7% of fat and a large amount of carbohydrates (66.1%) per
dry matter (Irina et al., 2015) in China. Johnsy et al., (2011) reported that A. auricular contained carbohydrates
(33.23%), lipids (1.63%), protein (36.3%), fibre (8.4%) and ash (7.07%) and it
was ranged in between other studied mushrooms. Ezeibekwe et al., (2009) found
that A. auricular and P. squarrosulus contained low protein,
ash, fat and carbohydrate contents in compared with P. tuber-regium in Nigeria. Wild and cultivated mushroom of A. auricular, nutritionally rich in
carbohydrates, protein, but lowest value fat, ash content and low levels of
macro- and micro-elements was recorded (Obodai et al., 2014). The protein
content of mushrooms is known to be highly variable due to different reasons like,
strain of species, tissue type and stage of development, substrate and method
of analysis (Usha and Suguna, 2014). From the above findings it was found that Auricularia spp. didn’t very much differ
from other edible mushrooms in its nutritional composition. Therefore this
relative high carbohydrate content as well as food energy values in Auricularia spp. suggests that they are
excellent source food items (Chukwu, 2000) and these mushrooms are used as a
raw material to produce low-calorie dietary food items(Irina et al., 2015), as
well as a good source of biologically active beneficial components.

Most of the Auricularia
Sp. contain high amount of carbohydrate but low amount of fat. In some species
the protein contains may be high up to 36%. This mushroom reach in potassium,
phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, but cadmium and lead contain generally very
low. Due to presence excellent nutrient contains Auricularia may be choice dietary item for diabetic, cardiac, and
cancer patient. There are many species of Auricularia
available in wild condition but it is necessary to identify this species at
molecular level. The documentation and characterization of various species of Auracularia is very much important,
because it is the fourth most important cultivated mushrooms in all over the
world after Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus.

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