Name: authority as he want to find about

Name: Akram Ahmed

Madonna ID: 250528

Medical Ethics- Assignment I

 

Stanley Milgram Experiment

It
was a famous experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram a psychologist at Yale
University to understand what individual choose when he is in a situation
whether to follow obedience or personal con-science. The experiment began in
July 1961. Milgram’s actual intensions were to find whether the Germans were
obedient to the authority as he want to find about the Nazi killing in World
War 2, he only selected male participants, he selected 40 males aged between 20
to 50 years. For the experiment there were two rooms. One room for the learner
and another room for the teacher and the experimenter. The electric shock
generator was placed in the teacher and experimenter’s room. There was a
teacher, student and an experimenter. There were 30 switched in the electric
shock generator marked from 15 volts to 450 volts. The learners were strapped
to a chair with electric rods tied to their hands. They were given a list of
words to learn and the later the teacher could ask questions of these words.

 

The
teachers were told to give shock every time the student makes a mistake by
increasing the voltage of electric shock each time. Most of the time, the
students gave wrong answer. Whenever the students gave a wrong answer, the
teacher was ordered by the experimenter to give an electric shock. Whenever a
teacher refused to give shock the experimenter forced and ordered they must
continue

 

Result-Each
timethe learner made a mistake the teacher delivered a shock having voltage greater
than the previous one, only some people stopped the experiment disobeying the authority’s
order and following their self-conscience where as 65% of people continued
giving shock to the learners, this showed that the obedient towards the
authority was out of fear.Most of the participants continued to 300 volts.
Mostly ordinary people follow orders from authority even they don’t care
killing an innocent human. There are many situation such as in school,
workplace or family.

 

Utilitarian
view- According to the Utilitarian view, the best action is the one that
benefits the maximum in terms of happiness and good being and that action is
considered moral but in this experiment majority of the people put forward
their interest and not thinking about well-being or interest of others so this
experiment is generally against the Utilitarian view. As the teachers were only
following the orders of the experimenter, their intensions were to stop the
experiment but they could not withdraw at any condition. They even felt guilty
and sympathy of their act

 

Kantian
view- According to Kantian view, the duties should be put in the first place,
in the experiment the teachers were only fulfilling their duty under the authority
and this does not raise issue per Kantian view. In this experiment 65% of the
teachers kept on giving electric shock. They did not cared about the screaming
and pain of the learners. They only thought about their duty as the most prior
one. Since the Kantians view say that do or obey whatever is said regard- less
its harm or outcome. So the teacher did the same.

 

Ethical
view of the experiment – In my point of view, the experiment was un-ethical as
the students were not informed and also they could not withdraw from the experiment.
No one would enter in an experiment knowing that they will get electric shock
ranging from 15 volts to 450 volts as everyone have sense unless they are not
informed. They were in stressful situation and they wanted to leave but they
had no way out as they were strapped in a chair, this was an act of in human
behavior. The ethical issues in this experiment include protection of
participants as they were exposed to a disturbing and stressful situation which
could harm their psychological health, the experiment also discouraged teachers
withdrawal from the experiment as many of them wanted to but they did not knew
they could as it encouraged them only to continue the experiment whenever they
tried to stop the experiment they were ordered or encouraged to please continue
or to a certain extent you have no choice but to continue. Harming someone for
your benefit and profit is always un-ethical. Even a good hearted and wise
person if placed in a situation where he is harassed or forced physically or
mentally, he would do whatever he was commanded by his superiors.

Reference

https://www.simplepsychological.org/milgram.html

https://explorable.com/stanley-milgram-experiment

https://nature.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7article/article35.html