Name: Akram AhmedMadonna ID: 250528Medical Ethics- Assignment I Stanley Milgram ExperimentItwas a famous experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram a psychologist at YaleUniversity to understand what individual choose when he is in a situationwhether to follow obedience or personal con-science. The experiment began inJuly 1961. Milgram’s actual intensions were to find whether the Germans wereobedient to the authority as he want to find about the Nazi killing in WorldWar 2, he only selected male participants, he selected 40 males aged between 20to 50 years. For the experiment there were two rooms. One room for the learnerand another room for the teacher and the experimenter.
The electric shockgenerator was placed in the teacher and experimenter’s room. There was ateacher, student and an experimenter. There were 30 switched in the electricshock generator marked from 15 volts to 450 volts. The learners were strappedto a chair with electric rods tied to their hands.
They were given a list ofwords to learn and the later the teacher could ask questions of these words. Theteachers were told to give shock every time the student makes a mistake byincreasing the voltage of electric shock each time. Most of the time, thestudents gave wrong answer. Whenever the students gave a wrong answer, theteacher was ordered by the experimenter to give an electric shock. Whenever ateacher refused to give shock the experimenter forced and ordered they mustcontinue Result-Eachtimethe learner made a mistake the teacher delivered a shock having voltage greaterthan the previous one, only some people stopped the experiment disobeying the authority’sorder and following their self-conscience where as 65% of people continuedgiving shock to the learners, this showed that the obedient towards theauthority was out of fear.Most of the participants continued to 300 volts.Mostly ordinary people follow orders from authority even they don’t carekilling an innocent human.
There are many situation such as in school,workplace or family. Utilitarianview- According to the Utilitarian view, the best action is the one thatbenefits the maximum in terms of happiness and good being and that action isconsidered moral but in this experiment majority of the people put forwardtheir interest and not thinking about well-being or interest of others so thisexperiment is generally against the Utilitarian view. As the teachers were onlyfollowing the orders of the experimenter, their intensions were to stop theexperiment but they could not withdraw at any condition.
They even felt guiltyand sympathy of their act Kantianview- According to Kantian view, the duties should be put in the first place,in the experiment the teachers were only fulfilling their duty under the authorityand this does not raise issue per Kantian view. In this experiment 65% of theteachers kept on giving electric shock. They did not cared about the screamingand pain of the learners. They only thought about their duty as the most priorone.
Since the Kantians view say that do or obey whatever is said regard- lessits harm or outcome. So the teacher did the same. Ethicalview of the experiment – In my point of view, the experiment was un-ethical asthe students were not informed and also they could not withdraw from the experiment.
No one would enter in an experiment knowing that they will get electric shockranging from 15 volts to 450 volts as everyone have sense unless they are notinformed. They were in stressful situation and they wanted to leave but theyhad no way out as they were strapped in a chair, this was an act of in humanbehavior. The ethical issues in this experiment include protection ofparticipants as they were exposed to a disturbing and stressful situation whichcould harm their psychological health, the experiment also discouraged teacherswithdrawal from the experiment as many of them wanted to but they did not knewthey could as it encouraged them only to continue the experiment whenever theytried to stop the experiment they were ordered or encouraged to please continueor to a certain extent you have no choice but to continue. Harming someone foryour benefit and profit is always un-ethical. Even a good hearted and wiseperson if placed in a situation where he is harassed or forced physically ormentally, he would do whatever he was commanded by his superiors.Referencehttps://www.simplepsychological.org/milgram.htmlhttps://explorable.com/stanley-milgram-experimenthttps://nature.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7article/article35.html