Nowadays industries. Chromium also has a wide range

Nowadays heavy
metal pollution has become the most important problem in our environment. It
mainly causes pollution in natural water bodies. These heavy metals are
continuously released into the water bodies from natural process like volcanic
activity and weathering of rocks. There are lot of industries involved in
releasing of heavy metals. The concentration of the heavy metal has been increased
by the release of effluents from metal processing, ore processing, mining,
metal polishing, cleaning, paint manufacturing and battery manufacturing
industries. This heavy metal content in the environment cause various health
issues in animals in the water bodies and to the human beings.

          Chromium
is one of the important heavy metals in our environment. Chromium has become
serious health concern due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic characteristics.
Chromium has been released by various industrial and agricultural
activities.  Chromium has been mainly
exonerated to the environment by leather tanning, textile, paper & pulp
production, electroplating, petroleum refineries, inorganic chemical production
and metal finishing industries. Chromium also has a wide range of applications
in paper and pulp industries and alloy industries. It is also an essential
element in drinking water for most animals and it also involved in iron metabolism
and maintenance of blood vessels in human beings.

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          There
is various health issues has been arise in human beings due to the effect of
chromium in the environment. Various researches depicts that the workers of
various industries had been affected by various health issues like eye
irritation, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhoea and haemorrhage.
 Some researchers stated that increased
chromium level may also caused increased risk of various cancers like cancer in
digestive tract & lungs, bone prostate cancer, lymphomas, Hodgkin’s,
leukaemia, stomach, genital, renal and bladder cancer.  

          There
are different kinds of treatment methods were used for the removal of heavy
metals like chromium. Common methods like chemical precipitation, coagulation,
adsorption, membrane separation, ferrite treatment system, solvent extraction
and evaporation were used for the removal of chromium in waste water. But there
is a need of alternative methods due to their operational demerits and high
cost. There are diverse technologies were developed and reported by different
researchers by solving these disadvantages in a conventional treatment methods.

         

          A
green micro algal biomass collected from local lake has been used to remove the
chromium in a synthetic aqueous solution of chromium. Adsorptive removal of  chromium had been calculated by using various
factors like concentration of adsorbent, contact time, metal ion concentration
and pH. The adsorption equilibrium from the data were correlated with different
equilibrium isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich –
Peterson, Khan to provide the accurate data. The adsorbent material is highly
effective due to its adsorption capacity of chromium (99.75%). 1

 

          Effluent
from the electroplating and galvanizing industry has been treated with biosorbent
(dried biomass of chlorella vulgaris).
Biosorption of chromium had been measured under different conditions like
biosorbent dosage, pH, salinity, contact time and initial metal ion
concentration. The results were compared with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm
models. So the results reveals that the  chlorella vulgaris  biomass can be used for the adsorption of
chromium.2

 

        Immobilized
algal- bloom biomass had been treated with Chromium (VI) synthetic solution.
Various parameters like chemical activation, pH, contact time, initial
concentration of chromium were investigated. The results were fitted with Langmuir
isotherm. So it reveals that the bloom forming algae can be used for the
removal of chromium in a wastewater.3

 

        Chromium
and copper in the waste water of textile industry has been removed by using
immobilized algal species of Chlorella and
Spirulina. Removal percentage of both
species has been calculated with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.4