Ø the building itself can stand as a



Description of Commercial
Architecture :

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A commercial building
is a building that is used for commercial use. Types can include office
buildings, warehouses, or retail (i.e. convenience stores, ‘big box’ stores,
shopping malls, etc.). In urban locations, a commercial building often combines
functions, such as an office on levels 2-10, with retail on floor 1. When space
allocated to multiple functions is significant, these buildings can be called
multi-use. Local authorities commonly maintain strict regulations on commercial
zoning, and have the authority to designate any zoned area as such. A business
must be located in a commercial area or area zoned at least partially for
commerce. Commercial buildings also have greater infrastructure needs. They
will need elevators to allow for freight and people, bathrooms for visitors and
employees, cafeterias and even parking areas, all of which are less common in a
residential building, even if the residential building is a large condominium
complex. All of these structural elements and designs must be in place before
the designer can start working on the project. A greater emphasis on
awe-inspiring design elements is necessary in many commercial buildings, as the
building itself can stand as a tribute to the company that commissioned it.
Lighting also becomes more important, as it can set the mood for a restaurant
or serve as an important part of a theater or auditorium. Designers may need to
work within corporate requirements to ensure that design elements match the
company’s branding goals.


Architectural Vocabulary of Lahore

The Architecture of
Lahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety and
uniqueness. There are buildings left from the centuries ago rule of the Mughal
Dynasty, the Sikh Empire, as well as from the era of the British Raj, whose
style is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture often referred to as
Indo-Gothic. In addition, there are newer buildings which are very modern in
their design. An interesting point about Lahore’s architecture is that unlike
the emphasis on functional architecture in the west, much of Lahore’s
architecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else.
Lahore art has always been popular worldwide and thus it lures tourists from
all over the world. The old city houses a number of Lahore architecture, which
have a strong influence of the Mughal style. Department of archaeology has
excavated many architectural remains of the buildings that were built during
the rule of Rama of Ayodhya. Thus it can be said that though most of the
buildings of Lahore carry Muslim heritage, there are a few structures, which
have the influence of other religions such as Sikhism, Hinduism, Jainism and
Zoroastrianism. However, Lahore architecture also includes the thirteen gates,
through which one can enter the city from various directions. Some of the gates
are known as Raushnai Gate, Masti Gate, Yakki Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Khizri Gate,
Shah Burj Gate, Akbari Gate and Lahori Gate. Some of the other significant
buildings of Lahore built during the Mughal rule are Jahangir’s Quadrangle,
Maktab Khana, Khilwat Khana, Picture Wall, Kala Burj and Hathi Paer. Like all
ancient cities, Lahore also has two faces, the old and the new. It is situated
next to the river Ravi, which helped the city develop economically,
demographically and culturally. Trade, food and communication, were all made
possible due to the strategic location of the city. The old city is the
reminiscent of the past glory of Lahore and the new city gives a prospectus of
its bright and prosperous future. The city is built in the shape of a
parallelogram and the area within the walls is about 461 acres (1.87 km2). This
walled city is slightly elevated hence protecting it from destruction and any
outside invasion. It was Akbar who, during his stay in Lahore, built a brick
wall around the city to protect it. Since the walls had decayed overtime, when
Ranjit Singh came into power afterwards he rebuilt these walls and added a deep
broad ditch around. This ditch was further filled with fine gardens, and
encircled the city on every side except the north. Access to the city was
possible through the thirteen gateways.

Historic Lahore

The Walled City of
Lahore  also known as Old City, forms the
historic core of Lahore, Pakistan. The city was established around 1000 CE in
the western half of the Walled City,1 which was fortified by a mud wall
during the medieval era. The Walled City rose in prominence after being
selected as the Mughal capital, which resulted in construction of the Lahore
Fort – now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as the city’s new reinforced
walls. The Walled City was bestowed with numerous monuments during the Mughal
era, with some of Lahore’s most iconic structures being located in the Walled
City, such as the lavishly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque, the massive Badshahi
Mosque, and the Shahi Hammam. Under Sikh rule, the city was again selected as
capital, and the Walled City again rose in prominence with numerous religious
buildings built in the Walled City at the time, including the Samadhi of Ranjit
Singh, and the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das. The Walled City today
remains the cultural heart of Lahore, and is home to many of its tourist

Research Aims

Application of said research topic

Literature Review

Architectural Vocabulary

Overall Pakistan Perception Of
Architecture & relation to the world

Pakistani architecture
refers to the various structures built during different time periods in what is
now Pakistan. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of
the 3rd millennium BC,1 for the first time in the area which encompasses
today’s Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structural
facilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by the
Gandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from Ancient
Greece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila.

Valley civilization:

excavated numerous ancient cities, among them Mohenjo Daro, Harrappa and Kot
Diji, which have a uniform, appropriate structure with broad roads as well as
well thought out sanitary and drainage facilities. The majority of the
discovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses and
workshops. Wood and loam served as construction materials. Large scale temples,
such as those found in other ancient cities are missing. With the collapse of
the Indus Valley civilization the architecture also suffered considerable
damage.3 View of Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath.

and Hindu architecture:

With the rise of
Buddhism outstanding architectural monuments were again developed, which have
lasted into the present.1 In addition, the Persian and Greek influence led to
the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century AD.
The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara
style. Important remnants of Buddhist construction are stupas and other
buildings with clearly recognizable Greek statues and style elements like
support columns which, beside ruins from other epochs, are found in the
Gandhara capital Taxila in the extreme north of the Punjab.


The arrival of Islam in
today’s Pakistan – first in Sindh – during the 8th century AD meant a sudden
end of Buddhist architecture. However, a smooth transition to predominantly
pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The way early mosques were built
with decorations oriented them strongly to the Arab style. The earliest example
of a mosque from the days of infancy of Islam in South Asia is the Mihrablose
mosque of Banbhore, from the year 727, the first Muslim place of worship in
South Asia. Under the Delhi Sultan the Persian-centralasiatic style ascended
over Arab influences. Most important characteristic of this style is the Iwan,
walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Further characteristics are
wide prayer halls, round domes with mosaics and geometrical samples and the use
of painted tiles.

colonial architecture:

In the British colonial
age predominantly representative buildings of the Indo-European style
developed, from a mixture of European and Indo-Islamic components.

– independence architecture:

After independence
Pakistan strove to express its newly found national identity through
architecture. This reflects itself particularly in modern structures like the
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. In addition, buildings of monumental importance
such as the Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore or the mausoleum established with white
marble known as Mazar-e-Quaid for the founder of the state expressed the
self-confidence of the nascent state. The National Monument in Islamabad is one
of the latest examples of integrating culture, independence and modern

Specific Contribution Of Lahore
Architectural Vocabulary :

The city’s landscape resonated
with architecture and gardens constructed and laid out by these two dynasties
following the traditional ornamental vocabulary. Lahore’s skyline was dotted
with beautiful city gates, sikharas of Hindu temples, samadhis from the Sikh
period and defined by the majestic and iconic domes and minarets of the various
mosques erected by its Muslim rulers (Figure 1). The incoming British Colonial
government had signed off on the construction of a new building on the Lahore Mall
but there was something peculiar about this new construction. It was a
structure unlike any other seen before but not owing to its size or
magniloquence. Rather, its significance was rooted in what this construction
entailed and epitomized. It represented the turn of the tide. It was a visual
representation of the changing times. The structures being referred to here are
the Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, as they were then known. At the time of
their construction they were a visual oddity on the landscape of an expanding
Lahore. They had a new and radically different architectural vocabulary. As
William Glover remarks, their purpose was to “introduce into the city a
substantially new and stylistically different but carefully worked out formal
and spatial landscape idea”

A powerful example of
the tradition of respectful borrowing is the Qutub Minar. Its construction
started during the reign of Qutub ud din Aibak but was completed during the
reign of his successor Iltutmish. It was built primarily as a victory tower to
symbolize Muslim victory over the local Hindu rajas. A closer look at the base
of the Qutub Minar, constructed during the time of Qutub ud din Aibak, reveals
clearly that Hindu masons worked on it, as evidenced by the expression of
native Indian architectural motifs (Figures 2, 3). Deborah Swallow notes, “As
the rulers of the new

sultanate turned their
attention to establishing a court culture of their own, they were obliged to
recruit artists trained in the local tradition. The result was a syncretism,
which reflected the “interpretation of Iranian styles through the prism of
Indian traditions” (Swallow 1990, 43). Fatehpur Sikri, represents another example
of respectful borrowing

Its design was heavily influenced
by the great assimilationist, Emperor Akbar himself. Therefore, with new
masters came new architectural practices but the emphasis was never on whole
scale demolition of the old and imposition of the new. The introduction of new
ideals in each era can be seen as a string of evolutionary advances in the
architectural landscape.



Materials and Methods

Descriptive method of research

In the image (b) we can see the
commercial activity on ground floor retailers etc and residential on first


                                  Image (a)                                                                                        image (b)     


In the above image (a) we can see the seating space for public used for gossips
which is also a part of commercial architecture of Lahore.


In this image (c) we
can see the jarokas on first floor. Purpose of this element is for vegetables
fruits etc shopping down there by rope and basket. For communication between householders
and shopkeepers.


                        Image (c)                                                                                       
     image (d)

In this image (d) we can see the perforated wall ,purpose of this wall is
for privacy from market and thermal comfort sunlight diffusion also we can see
this element in image ( c  ) in which the
same purpose is achieved through “jaali,s” wooden perforated soft partition.



Results And Discussion


Case study 1 Tollinton Market


The Exhibition
Committee announced suitable prizes for which they selected four categories,
i.e. raw produce, manufacturers, machinery and fine arts. The last named
included photographs, specimens of written characters, paintings on ivory,
modern paintings and engravings. Manufactured goods and handicrafts from all
over the province and the rest of India were put on display which included. Originally
intended as a temporary structure, the building remained in use, housing the
Lahore Museum until 1890.

The original building,
modeled after the prevalent bungalow design, utilized encircling verandahs with sloping tiled roofs supported on simple wooden posts. The main exhibition hall, with a length of 112′, rose
above the verandah roof, its pitched
roof with gable ends, sporting an array of dormer windows for bringing
natural light into the hall. Two square towers rose 12′ above the roof of the
main hall, supplementing the natural light entering the central section of the
hall. The facade was designed to express the wooden structure of the building
consisting of posts and a sloping roof fabricated with wooden trusses, while internally brick walls were used to support
the trusses. To introduce a feeling of unlimited space, these walls were
punctuated by a multitude of pointed arch openings, around which displays in
the form of stalls were arranged.

square towers
designed 12 feet over the roof of the main hall, complementing the natural light incoming the central
portion of the hall. The front was designed to direct the wooden structure of
the structure consisting of posts and an italic roof made with wooden ties,
while within brick, walls were used to support the ties. To commence an
impression of limitless space, these walls were interrupted by an assembly of pointy arch openings, around which it
exhibits in the form of stalls, were settled.

in this image (e)  we can see different elements used like
wooden trusses, pointy arches and natural light towers.



                        Image ( e
image ( f )

In this image ( f ) we can see more vocabulary like verandah and towers
rose windows and gable roof.

Case Study 2 Brother’s Embroidery shops


Like old style of
spatial planning for commercial architecture in lahore ,here we have two shops
on ground floor and entry plus staircase to first floor which is residential of
shops owners.



According to the
spatial planning of this case study we have two shops plus staircase which has
1 feet riser. And outdoor pathway .on first floor we have house consist of hall
kitchen rooms and one bath for all rooms and balcony which has perforated wall.





The main structure is
often double storied on a simple square plan, with practically identical
facades on each side. An inner square chamber on the ground and first floor is
usually repeated on a third floor.

The Walled City is home
to the cultural and architectural heritage of Lahore. Its blind arches and the
pillars of its buildings, elegant havelis, multi-storey houses, wooden doors
and windows and, above all, its famous Gates are some of the old city’s
glorious features, all of which have long fascinated the tourists.

So the overall conclusion of this
whole assignment is that commercial architecture of walled city lahore is still
going on in new ways but the essence and purpose of spatial planning and design
elements are still same .if we go through thr old buildings of walled city
lahore we can see everything in the original form and in function as it was
many years ago .like ground floor for commercial purpose and first and 2nd
floor for residential purpose.