Ø Introduction· Description of CommercialArchitecture :A commercial buildingis a building that is used for commercial use. Types can include officebuildings, warehouses, or retail (i.e.
convenience stores, ‘big box’ stores,shopping malls, etc.). In urban locations, a commercial building often combinesfunctions, such as an office on levels 2-10, with retail on floor 1. When spaceallocated to multiple functions is significant, these buildings can be calledmulti-use. Local authorities commonly maintain strict regulations on commercialzoning, and have the authority to designate any zoned area as such. A businessmust be located in a commercial area or area zoned at least partially forcommerce. Commercial buildings also have greater infrastructure needs. Theywill need elevators to allow for freight and people, bathrooms for visitors andemployees, cafeterias and even parking areas, all of which are less common in aresidential building, even if the residential building is a large condominiumcomplex.
All of these structural elements and designs must be in place beforethe designer can start working on the project. A greater emphasis onawe-inspiring design elements is necessary in many commercial buildings, as thebuilding itself can stand as a tribute to the company that commissioned it.Lighting also becomes more important, as it can set the mood for a restaurantor serve as an important part of a theater or auditorium.
Designers may need towork within corporate requirements to ensure that design elements match thecompany’s branding goals. · Architectural Vocabulary of LahoreThe Architecture ofLahore reflects the history of Lahore and is remarkable for its variety anduniqueness. There are buildings left from the centuries ago rule of the MughalDynasty, the Sikh Empire, as well as from the era of the British Raj, whosestyle is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture often referred to asIndo-Gothic. In addition, there are newer buildings which are very modern intheir design. An interesting point about Lahore’s architecture is that unlikethe emphasis on functional architecture in the west, much of Lahore’sarchitecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else.Lahore art has always been popular worldwide and thus it lures tourists fromall over the world.
The old city houses a number of Lahore architecture, whichhave a strong influence of the Mughal style. Department of archaeology hasexcavated many architectural remains of the buildings that were built duringthe rule of Rama of Ayodhya. Thus it can be said that though most of thebuildings of Lahore carry Muslim heritage, there are a few structures, whichhave the influence of other religions such as Sikhism, Hinduism, Jainism andZoroastrianism. However, Lahore architecture also includes the thirteen gates,through which one can enter the city from various directions. Some of the gatesare known as Raushnai Gate, Masti Gate, Yakki Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Khizri Gate,Shah Burj Gate, Akbari Gate and Lahori Gate. Some of the other significantbuildings of Lahore built during the Mughal rule are Jahangir’s Quadrangle,Maktab Khana, Khilwat Khana, Picture Wall, Kala Burj and Hathi Paer.
Like allancient cities, Lahore also has two faces, the old and the new. It is situatednext to the river Ravi, which helped the city develop economically,demographically and culturally. Trade, food and communication, were all madepossible due to the strategic location of the city. The old city is thereminiscent of the past glory of Lahore and the new city gives a prospectus ofits bright and prosperous future.
The city is built in the shape of aparallelogram and the area within the walls is about 461 acres (1.87 km2). Thiswalled city is slightly elevated hence protecting it from destruction and anyoutside invasion. It was Akbar who, during his stay in Lahore, built a brickwall around the city to protect it. Since the walls had decayed overtime, whenRanjit Singh came into power afterwards he rebuilt these walls and added a deepbroad ditch around. This ditch was further filled with fine gardens, andencircled the city on every side except the north.
Access to the city waspossible through the thirteen gateways.· Historic Lahore The Walled City ofLahore also known as Old City, forms thehistoric core of Lahore, Pakistan. The city was established around 1000 CE inthe western half of the Walled City,1 which was fortified by a mud wallduring the medieval era. The Walled City rose in prominence after beingselected as the Mughal capital, which resulted in construction of the LahoreFort – now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as the city’s new reinforcedwalls. The Walled City was bestowed with numerous monuments during the Mughalera, with some of Lahore’s most iconic structures being located in the WalledCity, such as the lavishly decorated Wazir Khan Mosque, the massive BadshahiMosque, and the Shahi Hammam. Under Sikh rule, the city was again selected ascapital, and the Walled City again rose in prominence with numerous religiousbuildings built in the Walled City at the time, including the Samadhi of RanjitSingh, and the Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das.
The Walled City todayremains the cultural heart of Lahore, and is home to many of its touristattractions.Ø Research Aims· Application of said research topicØ Literature Review· Architectural Vocabulary· Overall Pakistan Perception OfArchitecture & relation to the worldPakistani architecturerefers to the various structures built during different time periods in what isnow Pakistan. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle ofthe 3rd millennium BC,1 for the first time in the area which encompassestoday’s Pakistan an advanced urban culture developed with large structuralfacilities, some of which survive to this day. This was followed by theGandhara style of Buddhist architecture that borrowed elements from AncientGreece. These remnants are visible in the Gandhara capital of Taxila. IndusValley civilization:Archaeologistsexcavated numerous ancient cities, among them Mohenjo Daro, Harrappa and KotDiji, which have a uniform, appropriate structure with broad roads as well aswell thought out sanitary and drainage facilities. The majority of thediscovered brick constructions are public buildings such as bath houses andworkshops.
Wood and loam served as construction materials. Large scale temples,such as those found in other ancient cities are missing. With the collapse ofthe Indus Valley civilization the architecture also suffered considerabledamage.3 View of Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath.Buddhistand Hindu architecture:With the rise ofBuddhism outstanding architectural monuments were again developed, which havelasted into the present.1 In addition, the Persian and Greek influence led tothe development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century AD.The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandharastyle. Important remnants of Buddhist construction are stupas and otherbuildings with clearly recognizable Greek statues and style elements likesupport columns which, beside ruins from other epochs, are found in theGandhara capital Taxila in the extreme north of the Punjab.
Mughalarchitecture:The arrival of Islam intoday’s Pakistan – first in Sindh – during the 8th century AD meant a suddenend of Buddhist architecture. However, a smooth transition to predominantlypictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The way early mosques were builtwith decorations oriented them strongly to the Arab style. The earliest exampleof a mosque from the days of infancy of Islam in South Asia is the Mihrablosemosque of Banbhore, from the year 727, the first Muslim place of worship inSouth Asia. Under the Delhi Sultan the Persian-centralasiatic style ascendedover Arab influences. Most important characteristic of this style is the Iwan,walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Further characteristics arewide prayer halls, round domes with mosaics and geometrical samples and the useof painted tiles.Britishcolonial architecture:In the British colonialage predominantly representative buildings of the Indo-European styledeveloped, from a mixture of European and Indo-Islamic components.
Post- independence architecture:After independencePakistan strove to express its newly found national identity througharchitecture. This reflects itself particularly in modern structures like theFaisal Mosque in Islamabad. In addition, buildings of monumental importancesuch as the Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore or the mausoleum established with whitemarble known as Mazar-e-Quaid for the founder of the state expressed theself-confidence of the nascent state. The National Monument in Islamabad is oneof the latest examples of integrating culture, independence and modernarchitecture.
· Specific Contribution Of LahoreArchitectural Vocabulary :The city’s landscape resonatedwith architecture and gardens constructed and laid out by these two dynastiesfollowing the traditional ornamental vocabulary. Lahore’s skyline was dottedwith beautiful city gates, sikharas of Hindu temples, samadhis from the Sikhperiod and defined by the majestic and iconic domes and minarets of the variousmosques erected by its Muslim rulers (Figure 1). The incoming British Colonialgovernment had signed off on the construction of a new building on the Lahore Mallbut there was something peculiar about this new construction. It was astructure unlike any other seen before but not owing to its size ormagniloquence. Rather, its significance was rooted in what this constructionentailed and epitomized. It represented the turn of the tide. It was a visualrepresentation of the changing times. The structures being referred to here arethe Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, as they were then known.
At the time oftheir construction they were a visual oddity on the landscape of an expandingLahore. They had a new and radically different architectural vocabulary. AsWilliam Glover remarks, their purpose was to “introduce into the city asubstantially new and stylistically different but carefully worked out formaland spatial landscape idea” A powerful example ofthe tradition of respectful borrowing is the Qutub Minar. Its constructionstarted during the reign of Qutub ud din Aibak but was completed during thereign of his successor Iltutmish.
It was built primarily as a victory tower tosymbolize Muslim victory over the local Hindu rajas. A closer look at the baseof the Qutub Minar, constructed during the time of Qutub ud din Aibak, revealsclearly that Hindu masons worked on it, as evidenced by the expression ofnative Indian architectural motifs (Figures 2, 3). Deborah Swallow notes, “Asthe rulers of the newsultanate turned theirattention to establishing a court culture of their own, they were obliged torecruit artists trained in the local tradition. The result was a syncretism,which reflected the “interpretation of Iranian styles through the prism ofIndian traditions” (Swallow 1990, 43).
Fatehpur Sikri, represents another exampleof respectful borrowing Its design was heavily influencedby the great assimilationist, Emperor Akbar himself. Therefore, with newmasters came new architectural practices but the emphasis was never on wholescale demolition of the old and imposition of the new. The introduction of newideals in each era can be seen as a string of evolutionary advances in thearchitectural landscape. Ø Materials and Methods· Descriptive method of researchIn the image (b) we can see thecommercial activity on ground floor retailers etc and residential on firstfloor.
Image (a) image (b) In the above image (a) we can see the seating space for public used for gossipswhich is also a part of commercial architecture of Lahore. In this image (c) wecan see the jarokas on first floor. Purpose of this element is for vegetablesfruits etc shopping down there by rope and basket. For communication between householdersand shopkeepers. Image (c) image (d)In this image (d) we can see the perforated wall ,purpose of this wall isfor privacy from market and thermal comfort sunlight diffusion also we can seethis element in image ( c ) in which thesame purpose is achieved through “jaali,s” wooden perforated soft partition. Ø Results And Discussion · Case study 1 Tollinton Market The ExhibitionCommittee announced suitable prizes for which they selected four categories,i.e. raw produce, manufacturers, machinery and fine arts.
The last namedincluded photographs, specimens of written characters, paintings on ivory,modern paintings and engravings. Manufactured goods and handicrafts from allover the province and the rest of India were put on display which included. Originallyintended as a temporary structure, the building remained in use, housing theLahore Museum until 1890. The original building,modeled after the prevalent bungalow design, utilized encircling verandahs with sloping tiled roofs supported on simple wooden posts. The main exhibition hall, with a length of 112′, roseabove the verandah roof, its pitchedroof with gable ends, sporting an array of dormer windows for bringingnatural light into the hall.
Two square towers rose 12′ above the roof of themain hall, supplementing the natural light entering the central section of thehall. The facade was designed to express the wooden structure of the buildingconsisting of posts and a sloping roof fabricated with wooden trusses, while internally brick walls were used to supportthe trusses. To introduce a feeling of unlimited space, these walls werepunctuated by a multitude of pointed arch openings, around which displays inthe form of stalls were arranged.Twosquare towersdesigned 12 feet over the roof of the main hall, complementing the natural light incoming the centralportion of the hall. The front was designed to direct the wooden structure ofthe structure consisting of posts and an italic roof made with wooden ties,while within brick, walls were used to support the ties. To commence animpression of limitless space, these walls were interrupted by an assembly of pointy arch openings, around which itexhibits in the form of stalls, were settled.in this image (e) we can see different elements used likewooden trusses, pointy arches and natural light towers.
Image ( e) image ( f )In this image ( f ) we can see more vocabulary like verandah and towersrose windows and gable roof.· Case Study 2 Brother’s Embroidery shops Like old style ofspatial planning for commercial architecture in lahore ,here we have two shopson ground floor and entry plus staircase to first floor which is residential ofshops owners. Analysis:According to thespatial planning of this case study we have two shops plus staircase which has1 feet riser. And outdoor pathway .on first floor we have house consist of hallkitchen rooms and one bath for all rooms and balcony which has perforated wall. Ø ConclusionThe main structure isoften double storied on a simple square plan, with practically identicalfacades on each side.
An inner square chamber on the ground and first floor isusually repeated on a third floor.The Walled City is hometo the cultural and architectural heritage of Lahore. Its blind arches and thepillars of its buildings, elegant havelis, multi-storey houses, wooden doorsand windows and, above all, its famous Gates are some of the old city’sglorious features, all of which have long fascinated the tourists.So the overall conclusion of thiswhole assignment is that commercial architecture of walled city lahore is stillgoing on in new ways but the essence and purpose of spatial planning and designelements are still same .if we go through thr old buildings of walled citylahore we can see everything in the original form and in function as it wasmany years ago .like ground floor for commercial purpose and first and 2ndfloor for residential purpose.