Owing
to the increasing popularity of cash transfer programs on low and middle income
countries, there is a contentful literature studying cash transfer programs and
analyzing the impact of these projects on different socio-economic areas and
population categories. The total number of pilot and final cash transfer
projects implemented in low and middle income countries is 130 until 2016
(Hagen-Zacker, Jessica, et al., 2016). During the last years, there is an also
increase in the studies analyzing the impact of cash transfers in parallel with
increasing in project implementation. Various kinds of outcomes are mentioned
in these studies and different results contributed to the literature. Social
safety nets, and in particular cash transfer projects are used as an instrument
to protect needer households against poverty (Stoeffler, Mills and Patrick,
2016). The results show that cash transfer projects have positive relation with
education and increase the probability of school enrollment (Baird et al.,
2013). Additionally, it is also showed that by increasing in school enrollment
cash transfers have an effect in decreasing labor force participation of
children (Kabeer et al., 2012). Because cash transfers to the poor households
can be called as a positive income shock, the income level reduces the supply
of child labor by reducing the pressure of liquidity and changes the
preferences of households (Baland and Robinson, 2000). Reasons such as poor
quality of education, increased costs, difficulty in subsistence and
opportunity cost of education cause children to work in dangerous fields of
work instead of studying. Health of children is also one of the most used
indicator in evaluating the impact of projects. Because of using different
indicators in the case of health, evidence also differ from each other in
impact evaluation. In a project implemented in Burkina Faso, evidences show
that although cash transfer enable children to have more health service uses,
the same effect is not clear enough for unconditional cash transfers (Akresh et
al., 2012).

 The main difference between unconditional and
conditional cash transfers occurs in the case of setting conditions on where
beneficiary households can spend the monetary assistance. The primary aim of
conditional cash transfer programs is to decrease poverty by giving money to
needer households in return of specifically determined conditions (Doetinchem
et al., 2008) such as gaining access to maternal and child health care
services, educational payments, consumption, investment etc. while
unconditional cash transfer programs allow households to have freedom of choice
to spend anywhere they want (Bastagli, Francesca, et al., 2016). These
differences among the projects could reasonably be expected to have different
results.

As
they are the most fragile population category, the bad effects of low-income,
child labor, poverty, lack of nutrition are higher for children. Investments in
child development influence human development indexes through changes in
education, health, social capital and inequality (Gaag, 2000). The early years
in the life of a child is the most important stage of a life and due to the
importance of this stage their needs have to be met in order to increase their
well-being for the rest of the life (Merrick, 2008).

  Papers analyzing the case in Africa show that
increasing opportunity cost of education change priorities of households which
in turn increase the number of child
labor (Agiogbu-Kemmer, 1992).

  Despite of the wide literature of cash
transfers and impact evaluation, the main contributions of this study will be
as follows. First, the region where pilot social safety nets project
implemented is one of the poorest region of the world which, in turn, means
that if pilot project works there, it can be applicable to everywhere. There is
also lack of regional focus on Sub-Saharan Africa so the paper will also
contribute to the literature with its specifically regional focus on the
poorest region of Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, most of impact evaluation papers
generally focus on the impact of projects on some specific socio-economic
indicators such as consumption, investment, health, education or labor although
this paper will analyze the impact evaluation on certain population category
from every aspects. Third, most of impact evaluation studies focus on
impact of cash transfers on the condition which is set before the project
although this paper will make the impact evaluation of unconditional cash
transfer. In another words, it will study the impact of unconditional cash
transfers when beneficiary households have freedom of choice. This kind of
evaluation will enable us to see the results of pilot project when beneficiary
households have choice of freedom.

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