p.p1 process by which one becomes more aware

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Perception is the way by which we try and understand the world we live in. In a more technical manner, perception can be described as a subjective process by which one becomes more aware of the things which are happening around them, such as events, which one could identify using their different senses. Our perception is based on what we perceive from the outside world and what we consider as experiences and needs. As a result, perception has a huge effect on the communication process. This is mainly because in certain cases, the same message could be understood differently by different people. This is why organisations need to find a perfect blend of the perception process. 

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The first stage of perception is stimulation. This is where your sense organs are stimulated. In order for us to be able to perceive that something is happening, in some way or another it would need to come to our attention. This is usually something brought to our attention by something that anticipates ones needs or wants and will prove enjoyable. Some examples representing this could walking into a room and sensing a smell of perfume or seeing a picture that grabs your attention. A stimulation could also be selective exposure. This is when the person would find out the information for their own benefit or satisfaction.

The second step is the organisation process, and this is where the person identifies and recognises information that the senses are able to pick up. There are three ways in which the brain is able to organise these perceptions; are by rule of perception, by schemata and by script. The rule of perception is used for proximity to physical closeness. This means that things that are physically close together create was is known as a unit. Another important principle is similarity and this states that things that are similar in one way or another form a unit. For example, people who speak in the same language feel a sense of belonging when they are next to each other as they share something in common. The other rule is the rule of contrast where the units are different from one another. Schema is another type of organisation that is used. Schema can be described as “a mental concept that informs a person about what to expect from a variety of experiences and situations”. The third type of organisation is scripts, which is also a type of schema. However, there is a difference between a schema and script. The difference lies in the fact that scripts focus more on actions, events or procedure.

The next stage is the Interpretation-Evaluation stage which is a stimuli of two processes which is inevitably subjective. The Interpretation-Evaluation is influenced by the persons experiences, needs, wants, gender, emotions and other factors. Since each stage blends into one another, these influences are based on the stage two rule, schemata and scripts. For example a friend introduced you to a friend of theirs. In situations like these we tend to see the person through the filter of our schema. 

After going through the stages of stimulation, organisation and interpretation-evaluation we reach the step in the process called memory. This is the step through which both the perception and the interpretation-evaluation are stored according to their script or schemas. However, despite this, these schemas act as gatekeepers which allow only some information to be kept in the relatively objective. The amount of information could be stored in the persons memory depends on the strength of the schema of a person. The persons’ pre-conscious or unconscious mind also plays an integral role as it can repress our memories or even bring them to life. 

The last stage in the perception process is the recall. During specific occasions, the person or the mind of a person would want to recall certain information that has been stored up in the memory part of the brain. This information is stored up here until we find the time and space where we want to make use of this information. An example of this would be listening to a friend talking about this item they would have wanted from a shop, and when you happen to be in this store you happen to think about this item as you remember your friend mentioning it. Yet, our brains also have the capability to reconstruct the information that we hear. This happens when a person tells us something and we misunderstand what exactly that person meant or we understand the message in a wrong way due to the tone in which they meant it. On the other hand, information that is inconsistent with our schema we tend to forget as we do not consider it to be important.

By understanding and looking at self and how perception works, one can understand how these two are connected to one another. Impression formation, which is also known as person perception, is that process through which one goes through when forming an impression about someone else. During this process, one uses a vast amount of the perception processes, with each one having its own problems and potential dangers. When first observing someone, a number of characteristics such as sex, age, height and weight are all quite obvious are not much analysis is needed to note these things. However, what is surprising to note is that people are able to judge with what is known as above-chance accuracy, things such as religion, sexuality and also things such as political leanings.

The self-fulfilling prophecy is another important principle. This is when a person makes a prediction based on their schema. There are different ways in which a person could make a prediction. One could make a prediction through the formulation of a belief or situation such as when talking to someone you perceive them as friendly. These prophecies aren’t just based on how you perceive others but also how you perceive yourself. 
Since everyone has their own perception of the world this would influence their characteristics making up their personality. Our personality is what makes choices such as what seems right or wrong in the implicit theory. The Halo effect is one of the best examples that is used to show how this personality theory words. If one starts to believe that a person has certain positive qualities, you are more than likely to think that this person also has other positive qualities. There also exists the reverse halo effect, in which if you realise that a person possess certain qualities that are negative, you are more than likely to think that this person has other negative qualities.

Through perception we make assumptions yet our perception may vary. One of things we use to make assumptions is known as the primacy effect, and this is when we make assumptions straight away when meeting a person, for example if we someone wearing a school uniform we would immediately assume that the person is a student. We can also base our perception on primacy recency, meaning that our perception will take a little bit longer to form and we might be able pin point some characteristics in the other persons personality. Another way through which we form impressions is through attribution of control which focuses on how much control a person has over their behaviour. 

To make sure that this forming of impression is accurate and correct, one can analyse impressions. This could be done by avoiding jumping to conclusions or by trying to recognise their role in the perception process. Another way of approving this perception is by seeking. This seeking of confirmation may also reduce any uncertainties that one may have had on the person and this could be done by either asking someone else or even by looking up more information about the person online.

When it comes to forming perceptions of people from other cultures, one needs to take extra caution as not all cultures present the same norms or exceptions in society. An example of something that is normal for us to do but is not considered a norm in other societies is the shaking of hands. For example in India people do not shake hands with each other but they put their hands together and bow slightly in order to introduce themselves to someone else.

Each and every one of us are different when it comes to beliefs, cultures or experiences and a result of this we must take utmost caution when forming perceptions about others, and in cases where differences arise, we must do our utmost in order to understand and accept these differences.