Part A Careers:Data science is a blend of statistics, mathematics, and computer science. A Data Scientist is a professional whose main jobs are to collect data and trends and find a way to put it into practical business use. As well, companies are heavily relying on Data Scientists to design and improve cybersecurity.A few of the jobs for a Data Scientist include creating various Machine Learning-based tools, and processes within a certain company. For example, recommendation engines or automated lead scoring systems. They also collect data in order to help build AI tools that are able to automate certain processes within the company. Data Scientists also generally know how to perform statistical analysis. Data Scientists also have many responsibilities ranging from Data mining to creating automated anomaly detection systems. They have a wide range of responsibilities that require various skills. Some responsibilities are: selecting features, building and optimizing classifiers by using machine learning techniques. Data mining using state-of-the-art methods. Extending company’s data to third-party sources of information when needed. Enhancing data collection procedures to include information that is relevant for building analytic systems. Processing, cleansing, and verifying the integrity of data used for analysis. Doing ad-hoc analysis and presenting results in a clear manner. Creating automated anomaly detection systems and constant tracking of its performance. One major undervalued skill is the ability to communicate. Data Scientists must be able to quickly explain what they have found in simple noncomputer related terms.For the degree required to obtain a position as a Data Scientist, there are no specific requirements to become a data scientist. Due to the fact that Data Scientist is a generally knew field there are no specific degrees, however, there are a few starting to appear. Some examples of post-secondary degrees are computer engineering, computer science, a combination of software and some knowledge of web designing and hardware. Although there are some masters degrees available for Data Scientist, it is not necessary because the material taught does not help with the work done at the job.Although there is no required post-secondary degree there is common knowledge that every Data Scientist must know. The most common knowledge is a variety of coding languages. These include Python and Java: general-purpose programming languages that are the most used in the coding world today. R and Tableau: languages used for visualization. MatLab: A language that supports mathematical modeling. Scala: A Java-friendly language ideal for working with real-time data. As well as SQL, Julia, SAS, Hadoop, and Apache Spark. A data Scientist would not need to know all of these but the more they know the better off they will be as they can access more platforms. Due to the shortage of students coming out of university and college with the proper credentials the demand for Data Scientist far exceed the number of graduates.Bibliography:Half, R. (2017, July 14). Want to Be a Data Scientist? Here’s What You Need to Know. Retrieved January 26, 2018, from https://www.roberthalf.ca/en/blog/job-market/want-to-be-a-data-scientist-heres-what-you-need-to-knowBrown, M. S. (2016, July 29). 4 Reasons Not To Get That Masters In Data Science. Retrieved January 26, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/metabrown/2016/07/29/4-reasons-not-to-get-that-masters-in-data-science/#32d1002340c0Data Scientist Job Description Template. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2018, from https://www.toptal.com/data-science/job-descriptionHaider, M. (2016, August 10). So You Want To Be A Data Scientist. Retrieved January 26, 2018, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/murtaza-haider/data-scientist-career_b_11426570.htmlHere Come the Data Scientists | Inside Higher Ed. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2018, from https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/technology-and-learning/here-come-data-scientistsHow to Become a Data Scientist – Reasons and Steps. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2018, from https://www.onlineengineeringprograms.com/faq/how-to-become-a-data-scientistPart B Postsecondary Education:Name/ General InfoEntrance RequirementsLength of ProgramSome CoursesCosts*Approximate Computer Science at WaterlooOntario students: 6 Grade 12 U and/or M courses includingAdvanced FunctionsCalculus and VectorsAny Grade 12 U EnglishOne other 4U courseRecommended: Grade 11 U Introduction to Computer ScienceAdmission averages: from the low 90s.4 years without co-op4 ? years with co-opCS 135 – Designing Functional ProgramsMATH 135 – Algebra MATH 137 – Calculus 11 communication skills course1 electiveFirst-year tuition:$15,000Books and Supplies:$2,000Residence:$7,000Meal Plan:$5,000Total:Approx $30,000 Seneca Computer ProgrammerOntario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent with:Grade 12 English: ENG4(C) or ENG4(U)Grade 12 Mathematics: (C) or (U) or Grade 11 Mathematics: (U) or (M)2 YearsAPC100 Applied Professional CommunicationsCPR101 Computer Principles for ProgrammersIPC144 Introduction to Programming Using CTuition:$3,750Book & Supply cost:$375Living Expenses:$8,000Total: $12,100Queens School of ComputingOntario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent with:English 4UAdvanced Functions 4U Calculus and Vectors 4UAdditional three required courses may be either 4U or 4M.4 YearsCISC-121/3.0, 124/3.0, MATH-110/6.0plus electives.Tuition: $8000Books & Supplies: $1100Living Expenses:$15,000Total: $24,00University of Toronto Department of Computer ScienceOntario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent with:Grade 12 English plus five additional U/M courses. Program prerequisitesGrade 12 Advanced Functions (MHF4U) and Calculus (MCV4U); Mathematics of Data Management (MDM4U) 4 years regular5 years with co-opCSC 108H1 – Introduction to Computer ProgrammingCSC 148H1 – Introduction to Computer ScienceCSC 165H – Mathematical Expression and Reasoning for Computer ScienceTuition:$6,600Residence: $7,000Books: $1,500Fees:$1,800Total:$17,000Computer Engineering at WaterlooOntario students: 6 Grade 12 U and/or M courses includingAdvanced Functions Calculus and VectorsChemistryPhysics English (ENG4U) 5 years co-op is mandatoryCHE 102 – Chemistry for EngineersECE 150 – Fundamentals of ProgrammingMATH 115 – Linear AlgebraMATH 117 – Calculus 1 for EngineeringTuition and Fees:$17,500Books:$2,000Residence and Meal Plan:$12,000Total:$31,500McMaster University Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent with:ENG4U (English)MCV4U (Calculus and Vectors)Two of: SBI4U (Biology), SCH4U (Chemistry), SPH4U (Physics), SES4U (Earth and Space Science), ICS4U (Computer Science), TEJ4M (Computer Engineering Technology)4 years regularCo-op additionalCHEMISTRY 1E03General Chemistry for Engineering 1ENGINEER 1C03Engineering Design and GraphicsENGINEER 1D04Engineering ComputationMATH 1ZA3Engineering Mathematics ITuition:$10,000Residence and Meal Plan:$11,500Books:$1,200Total:$22,500Computer Engineering at the University of Waterloo is the program I am most likely to apply to. Waterloo is not only known for their excellent software development, but also their hardware engineering. The Computer Engineering program combines both of these aspects and gives you the skills to go into either hardware or software engineering. Having both of these skills is very attractive to future employers, allowing them to hire one person who can apply their knowledge to multiple categories. As well, according to US News & World Report 2016, the University of Waterloo is the number one engineering school in Canada. The reasons listed above are some of the factors that make the Computer Engineering program at Waterloo so attractive.Part C: Ontario Skills Passport:Career: Database Analysts and Data AdministratorsComputer use Involves many different uses of the computer. However, the most important of these are using databases. The tasks include creating, installing, and upgrading databases. As well as creating and managing data security, setting usage standards, writing code, backing up data, fine-tuning performance, troubleshooting errors and installing upgrades. The computer use also includes programming and systems design, such as using code to create a program for the mainframe computers to process large amounts of data. It goes without saying that a Database Analyst should know how to use a computer. However, the more knowledge of the computer the better. A Database Analyst must use a computer for all of his or her tasks. In order to access the databases, the worker must know where to find them and how to gain entry. They also find bugs and identify errors in databases and scripts, which again is completely done on a computer. They also need to have a thorough knowledge of computers in order to create programs to automate different processes within their company. A Database Analyst must know how to use communications software, in order to share their findings with co-workers, colleagues, customers and software vendors. Finally, they must have knowledge of word processing programs to create notes, reports, user guides, and standards.Critical thinking is an important skill in all fields of work. For Database Analysts and Data Administrators, critical thinking is key for evaluating the work of co-workers, your own work, assessing and evaluating the suitability of database models, and evaluating the security of data. If an employee can’t tell if his work or his co-workers’ work is effective and efficient, they will struggle to succeed in the field of computer science. They must be able to reflect on the work and constantly find ways to improve it to stay ahead of the competition and avoid mistakes. As well, they must be able to make sure that their work is clear before delivery to third parties. As well, Data Administrators must determine the integrity and security level of data. They must ensure that sensitive data is protected and that no recent security breaches have occurred. If they do not use critical thinking they cannot determine whether the data is actually safe, or if it just appears to be safe. Critical thinking a key skill that allows Database Analysts and Data Administrators to make sure their work is extra safe and is above the competition.Finding information is one of the most critical skills needed to become a Database Analysts and Data Administrators. If you cannot find databases, libraries, and other tools which contain the information you need to do your work, you cannot be effective at your job. Database Analysts must also be able to locate customers’ information about data management systems and installations. As well, they must go over past forms and reports used by the customers’ in order to understand the data flows. Most importantly, Database Analysts and Data Administrators must be able to locate information about discrepancies in databases. They then must search for relevant information in order to find ways to fix these issues. They can look for help from colleagues and software support personnel, and learn results from online tests and trials. Finding information is not only crucial for Database Analysts and Data Administrators to succeed at their jobs, but it is a must have to do their job properly.Being reliable is important for people of all ages and all professions, as it builds trust. Being punctual and following directions lets whoever you’re working for know that you are on task and working effectively. In computer science, asking when you are not sure of what to do is key as a little discrepancy can lead to major issues with the code or the output. On this point, giving attention to detail is key to make sure there are no logic or syntax errors in the code, allowing it to run without issue. As a computer scientist, using time effectively and producing work on time is very important. The market for code is very competitive and if work is not finished on time, the customer will not hesitate to go to someone else next time. However, if the time is managed efficiently and the code is good they will not hesitate to come back the next time. Finally, being safe and respectful in the workplace is everyone’s responsibility, this will allow for a safe and well functioning workplace.Initiative is defined as the ability to assess and initiate things independently. In order to be an effective worker, you must begin and complete tasks with little or no prompting. For a computer scientist completing tasks will allow you to advance your skill set and efficiency much quicker than somebody who does not display initiative. As well, people who display initiative are more likely to approach a new challenging task with confidence and a positive attitude. This is very important for computer science as computer scientists constantly face new difficult tasks. Instead of giving up computer scientists with initiative will enjoy the challenge and think of it as a jigsaw puzzle that they have to solve. Finally, somebody with won’t be afraid to ask for help when they need it. This is a very undervalued trait as most people would not speak up, however, somebody with initiative would get the necessary clarification. This would allow them to do their job better than somebody who procrastinates and doesn’t ask for help.Organization is a key habit that most people strive to obtain. Organizing priorities when faced with an overwhelming amount of work. This is crucial because you have to figure out what to do when in order to complete all the tasks properly and on time. For a computer scientist, they can have multiple sections of code that they have to complete plus other projects. They must decide what they have to do when in order to finish all of their projects on time. Saying that your going to create an effective plan and actually making and following an organized plan are two different things. After creating a complex and accurate plan you must be able to adapt when things don’t go exactly as planned. For computer scientists, they can run into a problem such as it is taking them longer to complete a certain section than originally thought due to an error. They must try to fix it as quickly as possible and readjust the plan to make sure everything gets done on time. Also, if they get ahead of the schedule instead of doing nothing they should try to get ahead in case they have a delay somewhere down the road.