People despised by everybody, although every day and

People who are instilled
with fear can be compelled to do anything. Power and control are two major notions
that many governments easily become greedy with. When governments act in this
way, they can destroy the minds of the population by using obscured tactics.

The way most oligarchies do this is by using the emotion of paranoia and fear.

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In the novel of 1984, the Party is an
oligarchy to their population. Although there are not any laws, the population
knows that there are certain things that should not be thought or said. The
Party enforces this by using tactics that creates their dystopian society.

These tactics are not only fictional but can also be seen in the real world. In
George Orwell’s 1984, the Party uses the alteration of social
perceptions and propaganda to exert control over the population, much like
McCarthyism in America and Nazi Germany.  

            The most distinct way the Party controls the population
is through the tactic of propaganda and this can be seen in twentieth century
America. The major form of propaganda that the Party used was the video and
images of Goldstein. Goldstein is an enemy who is said to be the leader of The
Brotherhood, a group of rebels against the Party. The propaganda is used to
show the population that Goldstein is a ruthless, dark terrorist to the society
to instill fear and paranoia in them. The citizens watch the propaganda of
Goldstein at the Two Minutes Hate, a time when the community comes together to
express their hate towards the Party’s enemies. This propaganda makes the
citizens feel hatred and fear towards Goldstein and it influences them to
remain in positive thoughts towards the Party,

what was strange was that although Goldstein was hated

despised by everybody, although every day and a thousand

a day, on platforms, on the telescreen, in newspapers,

books, his theories were refuted, smashed, ridiculed, held

to the general gaze for the pitiful rubbish that they were

in spite of all this, his influence never seemed to grow

 less.” (Orwell, 1950).

The Party uses Goldstein
to control the population. Goldstein’s influence over the population makes them
abhor thoughts that do not affiliate with the Party. This means that the
population’s thoughts and actions are completely under control and that they
are remaining loyal to the Party. The use of propaganda that stimulates
paranoia in the citizens of Oceania is not just fictional, it has happened in
the U.S. as well, specifically during WWII. 
The event that propelled the U.S. involvement in WWII was the bombing of
Pearl Harbor. The Japanese dropped a bomb in the U.S. territory of Hawaii’s Naval
Base, and it sunk eighteen ships, killed 2,403 Americans with over 1,000
wounded. This event struck American citizens with terror and panic and the U.S.

government took advantage of this. Soon after the U.S. declared war on Japan,
paranoia propaganda was being made. One specific propaganda poster, This is
the Enemy, influenced and controlled the American citizens. The poster was
a picture of an American woman running away from a Japanese soldier. The
woman’s terror is palpable as the soldier chased her with a large knife. The
U.S. wanted to control the citizens into believing that Japan is the enemy and
eventually influence them into get involved in the war,

other words, propaganda is used to influence people psychologically

order to alter social perceptions. In the case of This is the Enemy, the

was to change American perceptions of the Japanese…These

combine to instill fear and anger in the minds of Americans.

purpose of this was to rally the nation behind the war to defeat the

‘enemy’,” (Miles, 2012).

The altering of social
perceptions by using paranoia in propaganda is the U.S.’s way of controlling
the citizens. If they can get the citizens to fear the Japanese enough, the
citizen’s perceptions will be altered into thinking that the only way that
Japan will be defeated is if they all get involved. This technique that the
U.S. used is the same as the Party’s. The enemy that the Party wanted the
population to fear was Goldstein and the U.S.’s was Japan. This tactic
compelled the citizens to remain loyal to their governments. The use of
paranoia through propaganda was successful in the novel and twentieth century

            The next tactic that was used in 1984 was the
enforcement of the population’s loyalty and this is seen during the Red Scare
in the U.S. In 1984, the Party did not want any of its citizens to think
thoughts that did not line up with theirs. Any thoughts that the citizens had
that were indifferent from the Party was called thoughtcrime. If a citizen ever
showed an emotion or action that raised suspicions of thoughtcrime, the
citizens could be jailed or killed. The way that this was enforced was through
the Thought Police. The Thought Police would capture suspects of thoughtcrime. The
Party let the nation know that thoughtcrime could be concealed for a time, but
sooner or later the truth of one’s thoughtcrime would come out. The main
character of 1984, Winston Smith, was guilty of thoughtcrime and it can
be seen through his diary. He wrote his thoughts in his diary, none of which
affiliated with the Party’s way of thinking. Winston knew what he was doing and
that he was a suspect of the crime,

he wrote DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER, or whether he

from writing it, made no difference…The Thought Police

get him just the same. He had committed-would still have

even if he had never set pen to paper-the essential crime

contained all others in itself. Thoughtcrime they called

(Orwell, 1950).

This shows that the Party
did not want anyone to commit thoughtcrime and that if someone did, they would
be taken and punished. The Party wanted total control and the only way to have
this is if the citizens’ thoughts are loyal to them. This made them feel secure
in being in complete control. This type of enforcement is also seen in the U.S.

during the Red Scare. The Red Scare was the fear that over took American
citizens with fear of the Soviet Union spreading communism to the U.S.

Communism is a type of government, that when in its purest form, all the
citizens are equal. This means that the government runs all business and that
every citizen, including the people of the government, have everything the same
such as the same pay and same house. This concept is the complete opposite of
Capitalism which is what the U.S. practices. In the U.S., business is owned
privately and people get what they work for. The tension between communism and
capitalism rose after the ending of WWII. The communism and the tension struck
every U.S. citizen with hysteria but one in particular, Senator Joseph
McCarthy, saw this hysteria and decided to take advantage of the situation. He
stated that he had a list of known communists who were living in the U.S. His
accusations were made against people who were suspected of being disloyal by
sympathizing communism. He often accused people that were liberals or that
acted unprofessional because these were his perceptions of the communists. He
began to enforce loyalty to the U.S. government by putting people on trial who
were suspected of being communists and this became known as McCarthyism. Anyone
that was put on trial, would have their reputations ruined and in some cases,
be arrested. This gave McCarthy control over the government, “McCarthy cared
little about the accuracy of his accusations, and he made heavy use of
intimidation and innuendo. Nevertheless, his complete disregard for the truth
only made him more powerful and frightening,” (Wall, 2014). Since his
accusations against people destroyed their reputations amongst other things,
other citizens were afraid to stand up to McCarthy. This gave him power and
control over the American citizens and this made them act as anti-communist as
possible. This type of control is the same type of control that the Party used
with the Though Police. McCarthy and the Thought Police both worked to rid
their country of disloyal citizens. This gave McCarthy power to be a Senator
that no one would challenge and the Party the security they needed to stay in
absolute control. This tactic of enforcement controlled the populations in both
the novel and during the Red Scare and it was effective because it instilled
the populations with fear. 

            Propaganda and enforcement are two
very important tactics to use when trying to control a group by using paranoia,
but the most heinous tactic is deception that is demonstrated in 1984 and
20th century Germany. The Party used deception to deceive Winston
Smith. Winston did not conform to the Party’s ways and thought that a rebellion
was what was needed to end the Party. Towards the end of book two, Winston is
invited to an Inner Party member’s house. O’Brien, the Inner Party member, gave
Winston the impression that he was on Winston’s side. Winston was excited and
agreed to meet him because he believed that he would be joining the rebellion.

While they were at O’Brien’s house, O’Brien told Winston that he was joining
the Brotherhood. O’Brien made it very convincing to Winston; he had Winston
answer a variety of serious questions and told him that he would be putting his
life on the line for the rebellion. After this, O’Brien told Winston that he
would receive Goldstein’s book. After finishing the book, Winston was taken by
the Thought Police. He was taken to the place where he would be punished for
his actions. He was beaten, electrocuted and starved and O’Brien was behind it
all, “O’Brien was looking down at him gravely and rather sadly…Without any
warning except a slight movement of O’Brien’s hand, a wave of pain flooded his
body,” (Orwell, 1950). The person that Winston decided to trust, the person who
he thought understood him and that he felt he did not need to be paranoid
around, deceived him. Winston thought his paranoia of being alone in his
thoughts was over because he was told that he was joining the Brotherhood, but
instead he was joining the others who were also charged with thoughtcrime. The
ironic thing is that O’Brien who deceived Winston, also is the one who is
administering the pain to him. This same type of deception that was used in 1984
was also used in twentieth century Germany. During the Holocaust in twentieth
century Germany, many innocent people were killed. The Nazi government wanted a
‘pure German race’ so they killed people such as Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals and
handicapped people because they were not pure German. People that had these
qualities were taken to concentration camps where most awaited their death. While
these people were being taken, they were already feeling paranoid but did not
think that they would be facing deception,

“After undressing the victims were led
into the morgue-cum-

gas chamber – where they were told they
were going to have a

shower, after which they would receive
a meal and be assigned to

work. The moment the gas was
introduced, in order to drown out

the screams and groans of dying people,
the motor of a lorry, parked

there for this purpose, was switched
on,” (“Auschwitz”, 2007).

The Nazis deceived
the prisoners into thinking that they would get the chance to bathe, but
instead they were led into their grave. Even though the innocent prisoners had
no reason to trust the Nazis’ words (if they refused they would have been
beaten), they did because normally one would not lie about something as simple
as a shower. Hearing that they would be able to shower and eat probably
relieved a bit of their paranoia, but as soon as that gas fled in, many more
emotions other than just paranoia came over them. This deception is comparable
to the deception used in 1984. In both situations, the deception was
used to ‘keep their government in order’. In 1984, O’Brien lied to
Winston so that he could eventually be taken by Thought Police because he was a
threat to the Party; Winston wanted the Party to be destroyed. The Nazis
deceived the innocent prisoners because they needed to kill them in order to
lead their government into a society that was ‘purely German’.  Deception is an effective way the Party and
Nazi Germany were able to keep in total control.

            While these paranoia tactics are
dangerous and can be unfair to the population, they proved to be effective in
securing control over a group of citizens in both 1984 and in various 20th
century governments. The way most oligarchies change the population’s thinking
and exert control is by the use of paranoia tactics. Propaganda, enforcement
and deception are the three most distinct paranoia tactics used by the Party
and twentieth century governments. The propaganda instills thoughts and
feelings in the population in order to control them to think or act a certain
way. This enforcement allows governments to take action when they need to
secure their control over the population. The most vital of the three,
deception, contains the power to control the population into believing anything
the government says with ease. These paranoia tactics are dangerous but are
successful in securing control over a group as shown in 1984 and
Twentieth Century governments.