Preceding the creation of my lesson plans I had to ask myself various questions. What is a good lesson plan and what prerequisites do I need to include before embarking on lesson plan creation.Each part of a lesson plan should fulfil some purpose in communicating the specific content.
I have tried to include the correct fundamentals into my lesson plans to satisfy all learning and teaching concepts and needs That is the lesson plan should include, the objectives, the learning prerequisites, what will happen within the lesson. The sequence of student and teacher activities, the materials and resources required and the actual assessment procedures with any safety requirements. Added to this extension activities designed to keep students occupied if they finish tasks early and homework either reading or a tangible exercise should be includedwww.adprima.
com/easyless.htmAt the conclusion of a lesson, the assessment should tell the teacher how well students actually attained the objective, if at all. Usually, lesson planning is taught in schools or colleges as a skill that initially involves developing one or more objectives based on a curriculum or set of explicit goals. The next step requires sequencing a number of activities in which the teacher and students interact in some way. Following this interaction, there is an assessment and the next lesson begins in the unit or other sequence that follows the curricular structure. www.wpunj.eduThere are, however, some variables that relate to the instructional activities that should be considered.
This is a brief description of some of them.Any planned instructional procedure or teaching method for a particular lesson should also address the following questions:Does the lesson plan permit adjustment for students with different abilitiesThe instructional method(s) planned for a particular lesson must take into account each students ability. The range of abilities in which students differ is diverse and can include cognitive disorders, emotional handicaps, physical handicaps, and student mastery of appropriate prerequisites for any given lesson. Its difficult to factor all this in, but as a lesson planner, I need at least have a serious awareness of this even though I know my students have no disabilities.
I can reliably state this as my students have been screened by the Ford motor company before employment and any problems would have been identified.Does the lesson plan encourage the students to become continually involved in learning activitiesInstructional activities or procedures should not be static descriptions of what the teacher and students will do. As a good teacher I have to make adjustments in instruction based on feedback from students. If a student is struggling to set up a Teletrain rig I must give him or her extra time and information to achieve the same goals as the rest of the students. This time and resource factor must be considered important planning any lesson. Does the lesson provide for adequate coverage of the content to be learned for all students Probably the best way I must think about this is to say to myself when writing specific lesson plans, “What is the least amount of content that students should learn to indicate some level of progression. I will have specified this level of learning in the criterion statement of the lesson objective section and judged the lesson success by the chosen assessment method, for example observation of rig build or formal test.
Does the lesson plan permit for monitoring of student progressI have to consider how I will monitor the progression of my students during the lesson and indeed the transmission course itself. The methods are collectively referred to as formative evaluation. This means is that you must determine how and when you will monitor the progress of your students. This is not just to collect information about student progress it is also a method of devising ways in which to make instant changes in lesson procedures if necessary. I will expand and evaluate my methods later in the essayDr R Kizlik of Okalahoma University asks the question,??? Does the lesson provide adequate practice to permit kinaesthetic consolidation and integration of skills???Kizlik states ???there is no substitute for developing and honing practical skills other than practice???. That always means, in a practical sense, that there is a skilled observer of the practice who can provide feedback to the learner. It is true in every field where skills are taught n some formal way.
The quality of the practice and just as importantly the quality of the feedback to the learner are both interlinked and indispensable. The practical tasks on the rigs in my series of lessons are repeatable within time constraints and differing section of the module allowing for practise of skillsWhat about conceptual or higher order thinking and learning being catered for within the lesson Is there any way to practice developing concepts Concepts are unique to the individual forming them; it is difficult to “practice” doing this. Probably the best I can do is to have students explain in more than one way what they know. Therefore, conceptual learning is incompatible with multiple assessment choice tests but can be catered for with essays and design projects as in lessons:??? ENM/TSE7 writing an expansive essay extolling the advantages and disadvantages over dissimilar drive systems.??? ENM/TSE1 designing an electrically integrated guarding system as an extension activityWhen planning a lesson I should keep in mind the above questions adjusting them for each lesson and it may improve instruction and learning strategies. I continually look at my lesson plans, the way the students integrate with each other, their environment and resources and tweak as necessary to facilitate any improvements. My lesson plans and scheme of work have therefore tried to reflect the type of lesson structures advocated above plus the format used in my training company on a regular basis. I will attempt to link the above questions to my lesson plans to evaluate them and later state inadequacies and improvementsThe module I have chosen to document is related to engineering transmission systems.
This is a progressive series of lectures gradually building over ten weeks into a comprehensive overview of transmission in its various forms as related to engineering drive trains.The module begins with health and safety (ENM/TSE 1) and this is reinforced at the beginning of each lecture and when in a practical workshop environment. This is always an importance facet of all lectures whether in the classroom or workshop.We then evolve through various natural stages of progression from ENM/TSE 1 to ENM/TSE 10 starting in each subsection with a general impression of the subject. This allows pupils to obtain an overview and if they wish research the subject away from class.
The transmission course is then subdivided into four defined subsections namely rigid couplings, vee and chain drives finishing off with the most sophisticated drive, that of a gearbox.All these facets of transmission are studied in great depth and their alignment in practical terms is taught with varying techniques on specialised rigs from a bespoke manufacturer. Resources used are firstly videos on each particular stage of progression, Teletrain workbooks, and laptop with lightpro projector to present PowerPoint. On occasion we used an O.H.P. and always provided students with information packs on each level. O.
H.P. still has its uses but visually is very limited and students with the advent of video games and the internet are used to more graphic exiting representations. Video presentation is less controllable than new format DVD or hard drive storage and takes up a lot of room in a small teaching space. It is harder to stop and start to discuss, reinforce and verbally evaluate constituent parts of the presentation.Our videos were produced in the seventies showing presenters wearing kipper ties, tank tops and dodgy haircuts which is entertaining for a short while but sends out the wrong message to students about lack of investment in their teaching resources.I produce my own PowerPoint presentations to accompany every progressive lesson and try to adhere to the ethos that less is more.
I simplify the slides as much as possible with a minimum of text and plenty of interesting graphicsAdded to the presentations there are set tests and essay projects which provide assessment tools along with question and answer plus observation and general discussion. Various assessment mediums are used within this module from simple test, essay writing, a practical finished drive train and of course observation and feedback. These protocols will be expanded later in the essay.
Linking this set of lessons to differing learning domains, they equate to a mostly cognitive and psychomotor with a small amount of affective. The cognitive domain is information, knowledge or mind based. It has three practical instructional levels including fact, understanding, and application.Within the cognitive domain the fact level is a single concept and uses lesson plan verbs like define, recognise, identify, and list. The understanding level puts two or more concepts together. Typical verbs that should be used in lesson plan for this level include describe, compare and contrast.
The application level in this domain puts two or more concepts together to form something new. Typical verbs at this level include explain, apply, and analyze. Delivery in this domain is typically a lecture/presentation and the evaluation will be subjective and objective test items. All these factors are present within my series of ten lessons The psychomotor domain is skill based where the student will produce a finished drive train product. The three practical instructional levels will include imitation, practice, and habit. With the repeated practice of kinaesthetic skills on this module the habit stage should be attained. The psychomotor domain is steeped in a demonstration /delivery at the first level and later imitation of the instructor. This is instigated in the video and reinforced by myself in a practical demonstration before tackling the practical rigs.
(e.g. ENM/TSE ) As most apprentices learn by this method throughout their career it seems to be the most effective but can become time expensive as far as lecturing time is concerned The practice level in the later stages of the transmission course will be a proficiency building experience that may be conducted by the student without direct oversight of the instructor.
The habit level is reached when the student can perform the skill in twice the time that it takes the instructor or an expert to perform. This is achieved at lesson six (ENM/TSE6) where the student has already used similar practical tasks in previous lessons and a high skill level is starting to develop. It is at this point that I can question at a deeper level and invent problematic scenarios that may be solved by general or personal discussion whilst the student is kinaesthetically engaged.The delivery is demonstration and proficiency building in nature. The observational evaluation will be a performance or skill test. The informational content that is needed to be known to do the skill is cognitive and should be treated accordingly. If any anomalies occur in the psycho motive building phase a mixture of cognitive and affective strengths must be employed. That is to re-evaluate the information and have the patience to start again, an emotional trait not normally, but sometimes associated with this age group.
The affective domain is based upon behavioural aspects and may be labelled as beliefs and emotions. The three levels in the domain are awareness, distinction, and integration. The verbs for these domains when creating a lesson plan is generally limited to words like display, exhibit, and accept and these apply at all levels.
This effective domain has to be developed in my student to strengthen patience ,doggedness and persistence .All need to be a successful engineer.The first two levels are really cognitive; integration is behavioural and requires the learner to evaluate and synthesize. The content in this domain will usually involve discussions and debate.
The testing in the first two levels will be cognitive, whereas the third level will require an affective checklist or creation of an essay evaluating and challenging concepts within the subject matter. I want now to look at various protocols within the assessment process and evaluate whether they have been used in the correct manner within my lectures. The central purpose of classroom assessment is to empower both lecturers and their students to improve the quality of learning in the classroom. Assessment is an approach designed to help teachers find out what students are learning in the classroom and how well they are learning it.
This approach has complex characteristics which I will attempt to explain below. http://www.formatex.orgLearner centered assessment focuses the primary attention of both teachers and students on observing and improving learning, rather than on observing and improving teaching. Classroom assessment can provide information to guide teachers and students in making adjustments to improve learning. This technique was used in the workshop when building the training rigs and asking students when they would instigate a certain step and why plus what improvement in technique can be made.
www.computerlearning.orgTeacher directed assessment respects the autonomy, academic freedom, and professional judgment of the individual lecturer or faculty.
The teacher decides what to assess, how to assess, and how to respond to the information gained through the assessment. Also, the teacher is not obliged to share the result of assessment with anyone outside the classroom www.computerlearning.orgI personally do not use this method as I feel it does not lead to good relationships with students if they cannot input into their own assessmentsPersonally I feel a better method is so called mutually beneficial assessment because it is focused on learning and requires the active participation of students. In my opinion teachers also sharpen their teaching focus by continually asking themselves three questions: ??? “What are the essential skills and knowledge I am trying to teach” ??? “How can I find out whether students are learning them” ??? “How can I help students be taught in a better way” As teachers work closely with students to answer these questions, they improve their teaching skills and should gain new insights into what students need from the course.
I have not reached this stage, as yet, because of my lack of experience in this field but I appreciate assessments have to respond to the particular needs and characteristics of the teachers, students, and disciplines to which they are applied. What works well in one class will not necessary work in another Remember to discuss some of the assessment methods you have actually used across the 10 lesson plansI feel my methods of assessment, although not perfect at the moment, can be worked on, assessed by the learners, and hopefully improved for future learning sessions.To capitalise time spent assessing, and to motivate my students to become actively involved I need to ???close the feedback loop” in the assessment model .This can be achieved in the form of a review of learning, through a precise questionnaire and verbal documented salient feedback. Conclusions can be drawn and any problems or improvements rectified or implemented immediately I continually use question and answer plus general discussion within my lectures in an attempt to include everyone, stimulate debate, and sometimes provide a ???break??? for students if the cognitive workload is quite high. Dillon (1983.)discusses the role of questioning in which he states ..
. ???Through the art of questioning teachers can extract not only factual information, but aid learners in connecting concepts, making inferences, increasing awareness, encouraging creative and imaginative thought, aiding critical thinking processes, and generally helping learners explore deeper levels of knowing, thinking, and understanding.??? There are many types of questioning techniques formulated by Erickson in 2007 and I employ them in my teaching, for example. Factual – Soliciting reasonably simple, straight forward answers based on obvious facts.
These are usually at the lowest level of cognitive or affective processes and answers are frequently either right or wrong. Not a good questioning technique but sometimes has to be used as a precursor to another question.Example: Name the part of a chain that divides the links(ENM/TSE7 discussion phase)Convergent – Answers to these types of questions are usually within a very finite range of acceptable accuracy. These may be at several different levels of cognition — comprehension, application, analysis, Example: What is the importance of tribology in a gearbox with relation to aspects of predictive maintenance (.Formulation of a short essay ENM/TSE10)Divergent – These questions allow students to explore different avenues and create many different variations and alternative answers or scenarios. .
These types of questions often require students to investigate, synthesize, or evaluate a knowledge base Example: Design and draw in a simple format a drive arrangement incorporationg two or more different drive systems (Learning Activity ENM/TSE2)Evaluative – These types of questions usually require sophisticated levels of cognitive and/or emotional judgment. In attempting to answer evaluative questions, students may be combining multiple logical and/or affective thinking process, or comparative frameworks.Example: Justify using a vee belt system over other systems stating advantages and disadvantages (Formulation of a short essay ENM/TSE5)Combinations – These are questions that blend any combination of the above. Example: Factual/Evaluative-What are the names of two different types of couplings. In detail compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of these coupling in and industrial settingBannister (1970) says actively engaging students in critical thinking is at the heart of the questioning process. To foster this process, we must guide and support the learners critical thinking. It is thought by Costa& Kallick. (2000) that there are two basic types of critical thinking strategies: those that enhance the focusing of ideas and those that extends patterns of thought.
Having set out this ten progressive step itinerary or scheme of work on basic transmission systems in engineering I need to evaluate its effectiveness in the classroom and ask myself, does it meet my assessment of a desired criterion Does it challenge students to enter the realms of higher level learningAll courses require some “lower level” learning, i.e., comprehending and remembering basic information and cognitive concepts as defined by Bloom (1956).Many courses never get beyond this and examples of “higher level learning” Bloom (1959) include problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and creative thinking a further concept initiated by Bloom (1964.) I think the natural progression in the lesson plans satisfied these criteria as the students started with lower level pursuits and ended in some cases with tasks justifying choices made in its creation.Does the course use active forms of learningThat is:??? Learning is driven by challenging, open-ended problems. e.
g.??? Students work in small collaborative groups. e.
g. rig set up??? Teachers take on the role as “facilitators” of learning. . Some learning will be “passive”, i.e., reading and listening. But “higher level learning???, almost by definition, requires active learning.
Students learn to solve problems by solving problems learn to think critically by thinking critically; etc. The course satisfies these aims in the workshop on the training rigs plus the discussions that were implemented at critical stages.Did the transmission course give frequent and immediate feedback to students on the quality of their learning in relation to workshop practices and their classroom activities Lowman (1984) suggests that higher level learning and active learning require frequent and immediate feedback for students to know whether they are “doing it” correctly. Frequent could mean weekly daily or even monthly feed back depending on workload and necessity. Immediate could mean during the same class if possible, or at the next class session. As my students are assessed in a tutorial form every sixty days throughout their apprenticeship frequent feedback is always present .As for immediate feedback this was continually present in all lectures in the form of question and answer plus workshop observation and constructive criticism of the finished rig structure.
Did the sequence of lectures give the students a structured series of different learning activities Any course needs a variety of forms of learning (e.g., lectures, discussions, small groups, writing, etc.
), both to support different kinds of learning goals and different learning styles These various learning activities also need to be structured in a sequence such that earlier classes lay the foundation for complex and higher level learning tasks in later classes. I feel natural progression was evident in the series of ten lectures and that due to the pace and differing learning techniques most types of learning styles (or a mixture of) were catered for. Examples of kinesthetic pursuits were evident in the practical rigs tasks ofDoes the series of lectures provide a fair assessment model or system for grading all studentsEven when students feel they are learning something significant, they are unhappy if their grade does not reflect this.
I feel any grading system should be objective, reliable, based on learning, flexible, and communicated in writing. I feel I achieved this by practical assessment (end built result), set test, observation, and marking of a creative essay where all expected criteria was set out. By using this mixture of assessment a variety of skills basic and higher level can be assessed in a practical (kinesthetic) and intellectual (cognitive) basis. Some aspect of assessment was marked by myself and some were peer assessed.
Examples are provided in portfolioSo I ask myself are my learners motivated. If they are, why and how can I sustain this situationAs I have stated in previous essays my students need no motivation at this stage in their apprenticeship but I have come to understand some of the pitfalls to avoid if this situation was ever reversed and hopefully be able to employ the correct methodology to solve any problems that may occur.Some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, as indeed mine are, but many need or expect their instructors to inspire, challenge, and stimulate them: As Ericksen 1984). States, “Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teachers ability to maintain the interest that brought students to the course in the first place” Gross Davis (1993) states that many factors affect a student??™s motivation to work and to learn.
For example these could be, interest in the subject matter, perception of its worth, general desire to accomplish, self-confidence and self-esteem, as well as patience and determination. Added to this not all students are driven by the same values, needs, or desires. Some students will be motivated by the approval of others, some by overcoming challenges. Most students respond positively to a well-organized course taught by an enthusiastic instructor who has a genuine interest in students and what they learn and achieve.
Therefore activities I undertake to encourage learning will enhance students motivation. So how can I benefit from my students existing needs in my particular setting and environment I feel my students feel the need to complete differing tasks at a competent level to achieve their apprenticeship and also like being involved and interact with other peers. McMillan and Forsyth McMillan. (1991) have proposed that satisfying such needs is rewarding in itself, and such rewards sustain learning more effectively than do grades. I therefore designed into my lecture series, essay assignments, in-class activities, and discussion questions to address these kinds of hierarchical needs.
My questioning skills have to be implemented in the discussion phases of my lectures not to give students answers. I try not to tell students something when you can ask them. I try and encourage students to suggest approaches to a problem or to guess the results of an experiment in group work. I try and ask students what ???turns then on??? which lessons they enjoyed, were highly motivated and ones in which their motivation was lower. This can be documented and analysed by means of a questionnaire in which pertinent feedback questions can be askedBligh (1992) states that to achieve success within the course certain criteria have to be administered to produce substantial results:??? The Instructors enthusiasm. ??? The relevance of the material. ??? Organisation of the course. ??? Appropriate difficulty level of the material.
??? Active involvement of students. ??? Variety. ??? Rapport between tutor and students. ??? Use of appropriate, concrete, and understandable examples.Through research Forsyth and McMillan, (1991) state is imperative that you dont let your students struggle to figure out what is expected of them. You must reassure students that they can do well on your course, and tell them exactly what they must do to succeed.Guidence is imperativeLowman (1990) suggests it is good practice to strengthen students self-motivation by avoiding messages that reinforce your power as an instructor or that emphasizes extrinsic rewards. Instead of saying, “I require,” “you must,” or “you should,” stress “I think you will find ???or “I will be interested in your reaction.
“An instructors enthusiasm is a crucial factor in student motivation. If I become bored or apathetic, students will too. Typically, an instructors enthusiasm comes from confidence, excitement about the content and genuine pleasure in teaching. If I find myself uninterested in the material, I think back to what attracted me to the field and try and bring those aspects of the subject matter to life for my students in the form of past scenarios anecdotes or stories.
I must challenge myself to devise the most exciting way to present the material, however dull it may seem to be. As previously mentioned this can make easier sometimes by better audio/visual resources but imagination can play a big part. Being more animated and enthusiastic in class can more than make up for poor resources. Cashin (1979.) relates it is a good idea to increase the difficulty of the content and work rate as the course progresses giving students the opportunity to succeed at the beginning of the course. Once students feel they can succeed, you can gradually increase the difficulty level.
This is evident in my lesson progression as the practical tasks and written responsibilities became increasingly harder Also to reinforce this if assignments and exams include easier and harder questions, every student will have a chance to experience success as well as challenge. Motivationally it is important to return tests and papers promptly to the student and reward success publicly and immediately. Give students some indication of how well they have done and how to improve. Classroom interaction rewards can be as simple as saying a students response was good, with an indication of why it was good, or mentioning the names of contributors. Lucas (1990.) states that positive and negative comments influence motivation, but research consistently indicates that students are more affected by positive feedback and success. Praise builds students self-confidence, competence, and self-esteem.
Recognize sincere efforts even if the product is less than stellar. If a students performance is weak, let the student know that you believe he or she can improve and succeed over time.It is also very important never to demean a student in any shape or form as this demotivates straight away. Reference Many students in your class may be anxious about their performance and abilities. Be sensitive to how you phrase your comments and avoid offhand remarks that might prick their feelings of inadequacy.
With this in mind I must be specific about negative feedback as it is very powerful tool and can lead to a negative class atmosphere. Whenever I identify a students weakness, I must make it clear that my comments relate to a particular task or performance, not to the student as a person. I must try to cushion negative comments with a compliment about aspects of the task in which the student succeeded. I have come to the conclusion I have to implement active learning into my classroom teaching. I would recommend the following three suggestions, each of which involves a more advanced use of active learning. The most traditional teaching consists of little more than having students read a text or listen to a lecture, a very limited and limiting form of interactive learning. I have come to the conclusion I must consider using more dynamic forms of interaction with others for example: ??? Although I already create small groups of students and have them make a decision or answer a focused question periodically in the kinesthetic workshop environment I need to implement this on a more regular basis in the classroom based lesson??? I need to find ways for students to engage in authentic dialogue with people other than fellow classmates who know something about the subject (on the web, by email, or live) I can achieve this by asking students to research on the internet a concept and build this activity into the start of the actual lesson??? Have students keep a journal or build a “learning portfolio” about their own thoughts, learning, feelings, etc.
,Students in a small way already accomplish some of this criteria in the form of review feedback every two month but the advent of feedback questionnaires might be a possibility after each module??? Find ways of helping students observe the subject or action they are trying to learn, and/or find ways to allow students to actually do with case studies, simulation or role play, that which they need to learn to do a particular skill. This is achieved in my course of lessons on the rigs as these are working representations of actual set-ups they will encounter in industry( simulation/role play).Expansion of this concept could be achieved with field trips but health and safety prerequisites could prove to be problematic.Finally if learners process this experience by writing about it and discussing it with others. This will add further to their own insight and understanding Such sequences of learning activities give the teacher and learners the advantage of the power of interaction in the classroom and workshop environs. This was achieved in my ten point lesson course in the discussion phases in the classroom and the workshop reinforced by my questioning techniques. The above was also instigated in my lessons by the inclusion of formal tests and creative factual writing in the form of essays.
These were all based on sound core knowledge provided by past lectures or extensive printed handouts. In all lessons there is continuous discussion in the workshop and classroom between myself, individuals in groups and interaction between groups to determine facts, clarify procedures, and highlight potential problems. Also discussed are previous problems and their solving method which when shared develop any teamwork or bonding processes and enhances the working environment.
– In my opinion the way forward for me is to set problem-based learning and suggest that a teacher start with doing, by posing a real problem for students to work on and then having students consult with each other on how best to proceed in order to find a solution to the problem. This can be prohibitive without prior core knowledge and so the ground work for this type of teaching has to be instigated firstReferencesWashington, D.C. (1992): American Psychological Association,.Ames, R., and Ames, C. (1990)”Motivation and Effective Teaching.
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Costa, A. L. & Kallick, B. (2000) Habits of Mind: A Developmental Serieshttp://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/isl/isl2007/papers/session5/wisker.htmhttp://www.formatex.org/micte2005/19.pdfwww.computerlearning.org/articles/Improve1.htmen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem-based_learningLD Fink (1999) honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/active