The University of ExeterYeovil CollegeFull Time PGCE (PCE)Assignment Two: PlanningFarah ZiyaStudent Number 590064698PlanningCourse Planning and DeliveryPlanning a course should be primarily set around the syllabus content as this is what the students are required to know in order to pass a certain level in a particular subject. Therefore the delivery of the content of the course would also be set around the syllabus.
However in a real setting the planning and delivery of a course is much more complicated than explained above as a range of students and different teachers are involved. Each of these students can be of a different age, background, style of learning, level of functional skills and a range of learning needs; all these should be taken into account when planning lessons.If the course does not have a syllabus and no scheme of work has been prepared, then this is more of a complicated issue but I would probably start with finding out what the course specifications are. The specifications of courses will all be listed under each examining body, for example A-level Physics at Yeovil College is OCR so they would have the specifications on their website or we can send off for a paper copy. This specification gives guidelines and ideas for topics to study as well as any resources widely available. If in extreme cases no specification is provided it is our duty as teachers to either produce one or find one similar that we can modify for the courses purpose. Producing one from scratch is usually the case when a course has not been studied or suggested before; perhaps in this instance it would be best to look up related courses possibly at different levels, then modify it for the level you want it to be aimed at.Richard Pregent (1994), author of Charting Your Course, offers the following words of advice when course planning; ???Dont forget that a course must be designed and implemented for students, not the professor.
If your intent in teaching is to support student learning, then course design becomes more than just preparing lectures and tests, it extends to preparing other pedagogical activities and supports that promote student success.???The main points to cover when planning and delivering a course are; assessment, teaching practice and methods, incorporating technology, course syllabus and syllabus resources.Assessment should be taken into account during planning of a course; it is an accurate way of ensuring students have learned and how they are performing personally as well as in comparison to the rest of the class.What should marking a piece of work tell you ???Strengths and weaknesses of a pupil, quality of the work, the level or grade at which a pupil is working, whether the teaching was effective or significant learning took place, what a teacher needs to do to improve the delivery of that lesson, what a pupil needs to do to improve their learning outcomes, their literacy, numeracy and IT skills a pupil has in written work with key skills.??? (Davies. S., 2006) [pic]The Assessment Cycle (Davies.
S., 2006. p.167)Teaching Practice and Methods outline the rules and regulations that teachers must adhere to while teaching, these include the Professional Overarching Standards, Data Protection Act, Health and Safety at Work and the Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Act.
The method of teaching and resources used are dependent on the subject, syllabus and students involved in the classes.Technology has advanced a lot over the years and inevitably it is used in teaching. Some technology created recently has greatly improved the quality of teaching and thus the content of the lessons and so the learning experience. I have found the best new technology so far is the Interactive Whiteboard; this allows slides to be displayed on the board, but they can also be annotated by use of certain software such that it can become an effective teaching aid by allowing teachers to go through worked examples on the board while still keeping the slide with the information there as well. These annotations can be printed out or saved and used again at a later date, it can also be set up so that each new slide has a new annotation board; thus simplifying the process of ???wiping the board??™. I have used it at the beginning of my lessons to create mind maps of a certain topic with input from the students; they can come up and write ideas up there, it can then be printed out for them to take away and use as notes.This new technology also means it has become easier to play videos on the board, large enough for students to be able to see it clearly, and so creating a more comfortable learning environment.The course syllabus is an outline of what topics should be covered in the course; the syllabus is not something that can be modified greatly by a teacher but there is some degree of flexibility as to the way in which a teacher wants to teach a topic or the order in which it is taught, as long as all the points in the syllabus are covered.
Leading from this syllabus, a scheme of work can be created, this provides a breakdown of the syllabus with details of what topics will be covered, how long the course will take, what weeks the topics will be taught, any resources needed and how the lesson will be taught. I have included my scheme of work in this assignment which includes all of the above.A lesson plan for each individual lesson can be created from the scheme of work, this details the aims, outcomes, differentiation of learners, a detailed timing scheme of the lesson and resources required for that lesson. Lesson plans are also included in this assignment.Initial Assessment MethodsThere are a variety of initial assessment methods used to ascertain certain information about students before a course starts. The information obtained from these tests can be used to plan a course or individual lessons so that it is tailored to the students, it allows a teacher to know and be prepared in advance for the types of learners that are going to attend a lesson. These tests can also identify key learning areas that students may need help on or difficulties they may have during the course of the subject; all these enable the teacher to better prepare lessons.
The tests used at Yeovil College are the BKSB Literacy and Numeracy tests as well as a Quick-scan Learning style test. The Literacy and Numeracy test aims to find out which level the students are currently working towards in English and Maths respectively with level one being very simple and level three being the most difficult.Upon completing A-levels it is assumed that most students will be at a level three in both numeracy and literacy or working towards this. Both the numeracy and literacy test are computer based questions varying in questioning style that start off simple; students are encouraged to answer a question if they know the answer. If they do not they are advised not to guess because the next question is based on the result of the previous one; if the student answered the first question correctly the second question will be slightly more difficult than the first. If the student answered the first one wrong then the second question will either be at the same level or slightly easier.
By setting up the questions in this way a profile can easily be made that shows at which level the student is stronger in.I am not sure how the learning style test is completed in Yeovil College, but I have reviewed some online tests and found the style to be much the same; the questions are focussed around every day situations and tasks that students can choose whether they dislike or like certain ones. From these results a profile can be make of what learning style the student has;Visual Students that learn from and enjoy watching videos, seeing picturesKinesthetic Students that learn and benefit more from acting out and doing things, being ???hands on??™Auditory Students that learn from listening to speech and discussing ideasMultisensory Students that learn using all of the above styles; most people are multisensory but may have a preference for a certain learning style.Students entering Yeovil College will have a profile set up that includes their statistics such as age, and whether they have any additional factors they feel a teacher teaching them may need to know about such as factors that may influence attendance. This means that a teacher is already prepared for lessons and knows that some students may not be able to attend for specific reasons therefore the teacher can provide the student with the materials used in the lesson before that lesson or at a later date.
Class Learner ProfileAvailable in the AppendixCurrent Scheme of Work and Session PlansAvailable in the AppendixIncluding Learners Needs, Ensuring Inclusivity and Developing Functional SkillsLearners that attend a lesson should have all their needs met, this means in the case of my lessons that I ensure any students with attendance problems are taken into account; I will have extra handouts available to give out during the lesson should a student turn up late, I will also keep the handouts available should a student not be able to attend a particular lesson so that they can still have the information that was covered in the lesson. I have also on a few occasions suggested to students whom could not attend an important lesson that they contact me to arrange a time that is suitable for us to go through what they missed. Some students have taken up these extra lessons and on occasions I have had students turn up to that lesson that had already been in the previous classes; they feel they needed to go over some topics again so that it made sense to them.Some students may have family commitments which means on some days they may not be able to attend lessons as they have children that they need to stay home and look after. I have had one case where a student could not attend a lesson because the carer she normally uses for her child was ill on that day.
She had come in to find my lesson to explain to me the circumstances and that she would be back for the next lesson, as well as apologising for not attending. As she had come to find me in the lesson she was meant to be in, I could give her the notes she would miss at that point so she did not feel that she was ???missing out??™ in any way.Other needs of students that need to be taken into account are literacy and numeracy skills; the lesson has to be planned so that all levels of all the students are included. A lesson cannot just be aimed at level two as the students that have already achieved level two or that are working towards level two may find the lesson less challenging as so feel that they are not benefitting. Similarly students that are at level one or working towards level two may feel the lesson is difficult and so may feel overwhelmed. Inclusivity in the lessons is the key to overcoming this; a lesson must be planned to reach all levels of learners and must also show some ways that learners may be able to develop that level.
This is also covered in differentiation as we aim to provide learners with that ability to improve and achieve a higher level.In my lessons I try to have a task that all students should be able to complete during the lesson, this may be a worksheet. I will also have some tasks that I usually write as optional questions that the higher level learners may be able to complete or that some of the lower level learners can take home and try out. I have found from carrying out this task and planning lessons that students with higher levels in numeracy and literacy tend to complete tasks faster and so having extra questions to do is useful.
The lower level students will take longer to complete tasks but by providing them with optional questions that they can try out in their own time makes them feel more involved and it means when they try those questions they are improving their levels.I also have some students in my lessons that are listed as dyslexic on their profile information; I have to remember to find ways to include these students learning styles in my lessons. I have developed a technique that I have found helps these students and benefits others too; when I have given the class a worksheet to work through I often encourage them to work in groups, in this way I have noticed that students help each other out; explaining to others questions that they can do and asking for help on questions they are confused about. This also gives me time to go round and help any students I notice look like they need a little encouragement, it also gives me time to explain some ideas that students with dyslexia may have found difficult to grasp and understand when I taught it in the lesson. With reference to this I have found some students feel more able to pick up a certain piece of information if I explain it to them using a one-to-one technique.Learning styles must also be taken into account when planning for my lessons; because I am teaching the Access group physics this already comes with one main problem; upon talking to them I have found that most of them associate physics with maths and therefore it is ???difficult??™ so they put up this barrier of ???I can??™t do physics??™ before I??™ve even started teaching them. A way to overcome this to make the lessons more practical so they are doing the maths required but without actually thinking about it.
I also try to take the emphasis away from equations and explain concepts with words and ideas as well as metaphors. Most of my students are multisensory with a few others which is good because I try to plan my lessons to include all learning styles.I will start a lesson with a mind map of the topic we are going to cover in the lesson so that input from all students can be gathered. Next I will usually teach the bulk of the lesson in an informal lecture style so that students feel they can ask questions at any point, sometimes I will ask them to fill in parts of their handout that I have left blank, or we will work through some examples together. To ensure the students have learned what I have taught they will complete a worksheet with discussion encouraged, after a set time we will go through some or all of the questions. If the lesson is more practical; such that it requires experiments to be carried out; this will take place here; a worksheet is still provided and we will still go through all the questions afterwards. The students I teach have a wide range of ages therefore I have noticed that they will draw on personal experience to relate to some topics, which leads them to ask questions, so I will spend some time answering general questions relating to what we have covered. At the end of the lesson I will usually tell them what we will cover next lesson; some students like to read up before the lesson.
ResourcesPhysics to most students can be seen as difficult, challenging, hard etc. Most students in my Access group do not like the course; they feel daunted by certain words and topics; some have even challenged me as to why they are learning certain topics. Therefore I try to make the lessons interesting, I try to use a range of resources including the students themselves; I get them to ask questions, to think about issues, to draw on their own experiences, to help others that may find certain topics difficult.I mainly use the interactive whiteboard and slides as I feel this is the most effective way to teach students so that they learn; I will provide them with the same slides I am using, we will go through worked examples together and they will fill in the gaps. They can then keep these handouts as a set of notes to use later in the lesson. I have found a Virtual Labs package provided by the Physics Department to be the most useful tool in explaining difficult concepts visually by the use of videos that I can also use on the interactive whiteboard.Where practical based work can be done I try to involve the students as much as possible by letting them work in groups and carry out practicals themselves; I feel this helps them to understand the uses physics has in their lives and makes them feel more competent in the subject area.Classroom ManagementThis involves managing the class in such a way so that the teacher can teach the subject effectively, the students can learn and that they feel free to ask questions without disrupting the class.
There are some rules put forward in The Essential Guide to Teaching (Davies. S,. 2006.
p. 130-132) a few of these I will outline and relate to my teaching experience.Misbehaviour should not go unchecked as small things can lead to big issues and so be harder to resolve. I have not had an issue that I would say is particularly difficult to deal with such as a student??™s misbehaviour but I have noticed that when I give my class a worksheet to complete and let them discuss it they tend to talk quite a bit and often after a period of time this talking escalates and no longer becomes subject specific; they will talk about whatever they feel like because they feel there is no requirement to discuss what is on the worksheet. I have on a few occasions noticed this early on and so will tend to go round asking students if they are managing okay and how far they have got to on the sheet; this I feel makes them realise they should probably do some work before I get round to them, or ask me if they do not know how to complete a question???Late pupils can seriously damage the start of any lesson and undermine classroom discipline??? (Davies.
, S, 2006).Although I have found that latecomers haven??™t disrupted discipline I have noticed that I tend to forget what point in a sentence I am explaining or where I am up to with a slide I am using. Latecomers should be identified and dealt with, I have found a simple but effective method; when a student arrives late I state what time the lesson should have started and that they should be punctual then I mention that they should see me at the end of the lesson. This way I have found that a student will usually realise that they have been late and if there was no valid reason for it they will not repeat that lateness.
???Pupils do not talk when the teacher is talking, you must be able to teach without a background of noise???. (Davies, S., 2006) I have known of classes that do this and have seen how it disturbs the teacher however I have not experienced it in my classes as I try to make the subject interesting and leave out enough information from their handouts so that they have to pay attention to the lesson. I encourage questions, and as my students are mature students I have noticed they usually time their questions to when I have finished a subtopic, slide or explanation. Talking does sometime happen when students are confused about the topic I am explaining, but I notice this and will stop to find out what it is they are confused about.As a teacher you must clearly assert that you are in charge; I have had difficulties in this area but upon discussion with my mentor we have found that the issue does not lie with my subject knowledge or willingness to control the class but instead with my tone and level of my voice; if I want the classes attention during a practical where they are all working in groups I need to raise my voice above theirs.
When not in a laboratory based environment I have not found this a problem; in the classroom when I want the classes attention, usually at the beginning of a lesson either standing silently at the front or making some sort of loud noise, usually with the board duster and the table is sufficient to make them turn around and pay attention.My control of my class as a teacher lies in my confidence, I have realised that students need to be continually reminded that I am a teacher and it is my lesson. Hopefully that will improve over time and experience.A slide show that I found online summaries control in the classroom with relation to lesson planning, guidelines, rules and regulations; ???Establishing rapport with students Giving examples Review of previous class Conclusion at the end of session Plan before entering the classroom Preparation of topics in a sequence manner Effective rules and regulations should be established to conduct a class??? (Scribd, Unknown)Communication in the ClassroomThis topic continues on from classroom management as they are very closely related. There are many types and levels of communication in the classroom, all of which have to enable the teacher to teach the subject effectively so that the students can learn. The main method of communication teachers use to convey information is through talking.
Other common methods are the use of the interactive whiteboard, slides, handouts, worksheets, practicals, group work, one-to-one and videos, each method will suit different student??™s learning styles some of which have been explained previously. It is therefore important to include all or as many of these communication techniques as possible into the classroom environment so that all learning styles are taken into account and the lesson will be most effective.A presentation that I have found on the Internet regarding classroom management outlines effective communication: ???The Eight C??™s for Effective Communication: Content of the Subject Clarity in teaching or communication Capability of the person who communicates Credibility of a communicator Channels of communication Consistency in terms of teaching Continuity??? (Scribd, Unknown)Evaluation of Learning Plans[pic]The Structure of a Lesson (Capel, S. 2005. p 87)This isn??™t a formal process as such but I have found that lessons plans created before a lesson aren??™t always correct and something unknown or unpredicted crops up in the lesson which means lesson plans have to be evaluated and changed each time they are used. I am teaching Access and this means that the students have a range of numeracy and literacy skills as well as some learning difficulties. This usually means some students will either complete the worksheet quicker than I expected or take slightly longer; this is the same with group practical work.
I have had to learn that I cannot always wait for the slower students to finish, I have to set a time limit to a task, let them know this, remind them part way through and then round all the students up to go through the answers when that time has passed. I had often set the worksheet in my lesson plans to take less time and the explaining answers longer, but have found the opposite is actually true, due to some students needing help during completion of the worksheet.Evaluation of learning plans does not just happen after a lesson, it can happen before, I do this with my mentor; as he is more experienced than I in teaching and has taught the subject I am preparing for, many times before, he will know how the lesson should be planned and approximately how long carrying out certain tasks would take therefore he can advise on how to better improve my lesson plan.I am teaching the same topics but now to a different set of learners and I have found that even though my scheme of work stays the same certain parts of my lesson plans need changing for example nearly all of my students have level two literacy and numeracy with some working to level three, this means that they are better able to answer question than the previous group and so will complete tasks quicker. I have also found that they are more interested in the topic wanting to know more and to challenge what I know, they also like discussing ideas as a group more and drawing from their own experiences which at times I feel is good because there are some practical applications for physics that they may know more about than I do due to their experiences.Lesson plans are based around the learning profile group you are teaching, but certain criteria and regulations should be adhered to; such criteria are that it should agree with the scheme of work and thus the syllabus and therefore the curriculum. It must also adhere to OFSTED guidelines for teaching. Although teaching methods vary, the criteria to judge a teacher??™s effectiveness which are used by OFSTED are standard.
I have researched into these criteria and have found a guideline for inspectors which gives an idea of what an inspector is looking for in a lesson, this helps us better plan our lessons around their requirements; ???Generic evidence gathering activities involve: lesson observations; analysis of pupils??™ work; scrutiny of school records and documentation; analysis of parents??™, pupils??™ and, where relevant, staff questionnaires; discussion with staff, pupils, governors and, where appropriate, the school??™s partners. While some staff interviews are important to provide context, the main focus should be on observing lessons and gathering other first-hand evidence. It is vitally important that inspectors ensure that observations pay close attention not only to teaching but also to the quality of learning for different groups of pupils, either in separate provision or within mainstream lessons. Particular groups of pupils should be identified: in the pre-inspection briefing; through any subsequent discussion with the school; and in response to any emerging issues, arising for example from discussions with pupils.??? (OFSTED. 07/01/2010)Adapting a Scheme of WorkPart of this assignment looks at adapting the scheme of work I am currently using for a different group of students and explaining how I have gone about making changes and why.
My group is an Access group which means my students have a wide range of ages. I have already catered for; different literacy and numeracy levels, different ages, learning difficulties and learning styles so I will adapt my scheme of work to a group of students that are all the same age; my new age group will be an AS group with the assumption that they are continuing onto the A2 course, they will all therefore be 16 to 17 years old and have literacy and numeracy levels of close to or at level three, I will make the group as realistic as possible so I will still have students with different styles of learning in my classes. The content of each lesson i.e. the topics will remain the same as this is still an Access course, I will change the method of delivery, the resources, learner activities and method of assessment.The edited scheme of work is included in the Appendix.
Students at the age of 16 starting an AS in physics will have level three in literacy and numeracy therefore the extension work that I previously provided as an optional topic I will now have to include in my scheme of work. An AS physics student will already have the background to a lot of these topics covered in the Access course during their GCSE??™s so I can look at each topic in more detail perhaps carrying out more laboratory practical??™s with less input from me; letting the students carry out the work on their own. Following on from this I would use less group practical??™s and more individual practical??™s as students at this level should be confident with all the apparatus we are using and should be well versed in the methods of carrying out experiments.
Perhaps rather than using the experiments as a way of enabling students to see physics in a more practical way I could use the practical??™s to assess the students understanding directly by means of assessment and coursework, possibly in a Lab book. I could also ask questions that relate to the practical that they have to complete before the end of the lesson; this would show if each student has carried out the experiment themselves as the results they calculate in answer to the questions will be different for each student.My teaching methods will be slightly different for this age group; focussing more on the theory and actual topic content rather than its relation to everyday applications, there will also be more equations and mathematical content as these students will have the numeracy level to be able to complete the required equations. I will also ask the students more questions about certain topics that I know they will have covered in GCSE and that they should have read up on prior to the lesson. As the students are younger they require more structure to their lessons so a more rigid lesson plan will need to be created; the notes and slides used will have to contain more theory. The teacher will have to assert more authority as some of these students may feel like they don??™t see the point of being there and so will be more disruptive; at younger ages students are more influenced by another disruptive pupil as they are more influenced by peer pressure.
The teacher will have to be more aware of how the class is acting and will have to keep the lesson interesting; this may involve moving away from the planned lesson and changing the style of teaching every twenty or so minutes to keep the students occupied, thus preventing them from getting bored and disruptive.Changing the scheme of work for this group appears effective, I have noticed that a lot of different factors must be taken into account to significantly edit a scheme of work in this way; and that is possibly why a syllabus is referred back to for creating new schemes of work for different groups.ReferencesCapel, S., Leask, M. and Turner, T., eds.
, 2005. 4th edition. Learning to Teach in the Secondary School: A Companion to School Experience. Oxon, RoutledgeDavies, S., 2006. The Essential Guide to Teaching.
Harlow, Pearson LongmanFleming, N., 2001. Teaching and Learning Styles: VARK Strategies. Honolulu Community CollegeHolmes, P., Unknown. Teaching Learning and Assessment. [Online] Available at: http://ltsn.mathstore.
ac.uk/newsletter/aug2000/pdf/tla.pdf [Accessed: 29th October 2009]Honey, P., and Mumford, A., 1986. Using your learning styles. Maidenhead.
Peter HoneyOfsted. 2010. Conducting school inspections: guidance for inspectors of schools from September 2009. [Online] Available at: http://www.
ofsted.gov.uk/Ofsted-home/Forms-and-guidance/Browse-all-by/Other/General/Conducting-school-inspections-guidance-for-inspectors-of-schools-from-September-2009 [Accessed: 10th January 2010]Pregent, R., 1994. Charting Your Course : How to Prepare to Teach More Effectively. English Translated, Magna PublishersScribd, Unknown. Effective Classroom Communication & Management. [Online] Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/11631219/8-Effective-Classroom-Communication-Management [Accessed: 3rd January 2010]Appendix