PlatoPlato wrote dialogues from which we are given knowledge about Socrates and his ideas. Plato continued what Socrates said and believed too that personal opinion was irrelevant; the one absolute truth is all that counts.Plato was completely against democracy. To him, democracy was the worst thing that could happen to the society in Athens.
Democracy is the dictatorship if the ignorant masses. 1. Democracy was such a bad system “ that went against all rational thinking “ ended up killing the most important person “ Socrates “ Plato could never accept that Socrates was killed because of the ignorant majority. 1. In Platos ideal republic, democracy does not exist. (From his book “ The Republic). The philosopher “ who is the lover of wisdom “ would be the king “ who would be in search of the Truth “ If a leader is wanted, an appropriate one would be one who not only knows the Truth but also practices it.
According to Socrates, those who know what is good does good. Plato arrived at these conclusions because he believed that society is divided into different levels and each person is put in their level. Everyone must accept their situation and that is how they can contribute to society. For every person to contribute in the best way to society he has to contribute at the level he is at. Three levels of people according to Plato in order to have an ideal society 1. Labourers – who work in producing what society needs 1. Soldiers “ who defend the country 1.
Philosophers “ who run the country He said that philosophers and soldiers shouldnt have a family because then there is a chance that theyll prefer their family over the society.1. A philosopher “ he who loves knowledge1.
Socrates used to search for the universal definition of everything “ and that would be the Absolute Truth.1. Plato continued Socrates idea “ of the universal definition but called the universal definition as ideas “ which exist in the World of Ideas.1. Plato believed that outside our world there is another world which is The world of Ideas.1.
Socrates was trying to understand ethical politics “ how should I live1. The Presocratics were looking for the primary element in order to look for stability in the change. Cosmos “ the study of the universe “ to answer the question – is there is change or stability.1. Plato combined the two ideas and came up with the theory of the World of Ideas.1. Plato : example- when using a form “ each one comes different but they still have the same shape. Plate thought of the same thing about reality.
Each one has the same name “ because in the world of ideas there is the perfect idea “ on Earth there are copies imitating the original perfect form which exists in the World of Ideas. Everything seen on Earth is here because it is a poor copy of the perfect form that exists in the World of Forms/Ideas.1. The stability which the Pre-Socratics were looking for exists only in the World of Forms.
2. It is difficult for these perfect ideas to be something material since these are continually changing.1. Socrates believed that we were born with all the knowledge.1. Plato said that our soul existed in the world of forms and over there we encountered these ideas and for some very retched reason we entered a body “ and our soul is awaiting to go back to the World of Ideas.
1. Plato says that the soul is imprisoned in a body1. From time to time the soul remembers the ideas which the soul encountered in the World of ThoughtsPlato “ 4. Born in Athens in 472 BC.
4. He became a disciple of Socrates “ and continued in his steps. 4. He wrote the dialogues which give us knowledge about Socrates. 4.
He stopped his school of Philosophy “ L-Akkademja “ Aristotle was a student over there. 4. The killing of Socrates by democracy made him lose all his faith in the democratic/political system that there was in Athens at that time. 4.
He concluded that the leaders should be philosophers “ because they know what is right and therefore practice what they believe in. 4. He died in 347 BC “ (80 years old)Socrates Successor11.
He inherited, as well as developed and interpreted the ideas of Socrates.11. Cosmology “ what the pre-Socratics were interested in; Ethics and politics “ what Socrates was interested in “ and developed the theory of ideas.11. He called the common/universal principle that Socrates was searching for “ idea. ? Is-sensi qarrieqa, mhux ta min jafdahom. Min jimxi fuq dak li ghidu s-sensi u d-dinja li juruna, jibqa bhal fhabs tal-opinjoi “ DOKSA.
We learn about things because of our senses “ which give us information about our surroundings. Plato says that that information is important because it is all weve got but it is not to be trusted as to him they were regarded as the prison of opinions. DOKSA. DOKSA “ one part is divided into Imagination (EIKASIA) and belief (belief of the information given by our senses) (PISTIS). 1. The lowest form of knowledge we have is DOKSA, which is divided in 2. 2. The lowest is imagination (example art which to Plato was one of the worst things possible to mankind “ because the artist takes the impression of the perfect image in the World of Forms and produces with his imagination.
Instead of creating something which will get us closer to the Truth, the artist is making us see things which arent correct. The only form of art he accepted was music. 3. The second level “ which is higher than imagination is belief “ in order for one to understand the limitations of our senses.
? The information we are given by our senses are built of false impressions. ? Reason/Rationality is the only way to arrive to true knowledge. EPISTEME 4. EPISTEME also can be divided in two: DIANOIA and NOESIS 1. DIANOIA basically talks about mathematics. Mathematical principles are the truth. “ they are always associated to things of our senses.
1. NOESIS basically talks about philosophy. ARCHAI (principles) “ in order for us to find about the Truth and what is right. ? DOKSA “ lowest level of knowledge one can have. ? EPISTEME “ highest level of knowledge which one can have. ? – The unexamined life is not worth living “ Plato. ? Min ma jfittixx u ma jsibx l-Gherf ma jistax jghix hajja bis-sens ? 1. Our senses give us knowledge of that which is always changing and therefore we cannot base our knowledge on them.
? 2. The principles of science “ of knowledge “ can be understood and learnt since they are stable. ? 3.
If these principles are not influenced by experience how can we find out about themPlato “ the soul is always yearning for the World of Forms. Before arriving there, one needs to remember the forms which were forgotten.Platos CavePlato: we are trapped in a world of imagination. Outisde the cave represents the World of ideas whereas inside the cave imitates the poor copies of those perfect forms.
The scope of this is for us to leave the very poor life based on imagination and opinions which are worth nothing to the Truth which is worth everything.The Theory of Ideas (pg 58-61)Idea EIDOS “ 4. What we seek to find through thought and reason is only seen with the eyes of thought. Dak li rridu nifhmu bil-hsieb u r-raguni; narawhom biss bl-ghajnejn tal-hsieb. 5.
Independent from the mind. 5. They really do exist in the World of Forms. 5. Eternal reality which doesn™t changeThe world of experience is just a poor imitation. 1. Plato offered a solution to the problem of the one and the many, of change and stability.
1. For the world of experience of the senses, everything in continually changing. (reference to Heraclitus) 1. We can only talk about these experiences and only understand them with reason. You cannot have an opinion on something which is always changing. 4.
Unity in non-existent in this world, and our senses are not giving us the truth (reference to Parmenides) 4. Hemm nuqqas ta unity fid-dinja aqrrieqa tas-sensi 4. The objects of the world of senses are part if the ideas (which contradicts what Parmenides said “ that everything is an illusion) 4.
The objects of science, episteme, is only an Idea which is eternal and doesn™t change. 4. The majority of people only know experience and therefore remain living in a world of dreams, opinions (DOKSA), and the illusion of these poor copies. 4.
Philosophy leads us from opinions (the knowledge of things which are constantly changing that are somehow between existence and nothing) to real knowledge (which is about Truth and what doesnt change and are eternal).Plato had great respect towards Parmenides, and regarded him as his father.Parmenides “ Rationality He had the courage to keep insisting on the value of rationality, even though this used to go against the way we live.Plato didnt agree with Parmenides beliefs, but still respected him.He wanted to show that Parmenides was wrong. .
:. Patricide “ the term used for “he killed his father”.Pg 62For Parmenides: the many does not exist; only the one.8. Dak li jezisti ma jistax jkun xejn (Page 63)8. Nothing can come out of nothing.
8. To protect this principle “ (from nothing you can have nothing), he said that nothing exists, and all is an illusion.8. They had to go against the principle of reason.8.
How Plato went against Parmenides: Plato denied this absolute principle which Parmenides held so dearly (that of opposites), that nothing is nothing.Plato: that which is is, that which is not exists in one way or another, and somethings opposite can exist is more than one form.Parmenides: that which is exists, that which isnt doesnt exist.Plato: If you say that this isnt something, you are not saying that it doesnt exist “ but that it exists as something else. Example: A tree isn™t a seed, but it still exists as a seed. Opposite of existence is non-existence.
Platos main concern was to discover the truth, in which he followed Socrates work.The process of discovery was a;13. Rational journey “ journey of the intellect “ which took you from experience to the world of sense experience to the World of Forms.13. Our experience here on earth is the starting point of this journey13. The material world is only important in order to arrive at the World of Forms.
13. An intellectual journey to arrive at the World of IdeasAccording to Plato, the soul has 3 parts; 1. Reason 1.
Spirit/Energy (emotivita`) 1. PassionsDualism: 2 parts- body and soul.Our soul is who we really are, and it is trapped inside our body. It always existed in the World of Forms, and would remain up there until reason had control over the soul.As long as reason is in control, everything is in order. If reason loses control, it results in chaos.
Reason keeps stability in the soul. However, if it fails to do so, passion takes over. When this happens, we forget all that we experienced, and only remember the reason part of the soul.Plato said that not everyone managed to encounter all the forms, therefore they can only remember whatever they had seen before.
A philosopher is one who would have experienced many forms, and so they can remember all they would have encountered in the world of forms.Society “ divided into 3;17. The Philosophers (Reason) “ most capable in using reason in the best way.17.
The Soldiers (Spirit/Energy) “ since they will be protecting the society they need the energy and spirit.17. The Labourers (Passions)Every person was born on a certain level. Ideally each person performed at their best in each of the levels they were prepared for. * Love * Platonic love: a relationship with no physical attraction, and a spiritual bond. * According to Plato: * The person who loves someone starts by being attracted to physical beauty. * Example: those living in Platos Cave; you think its beautiful but in reality its a poor copy of the real thing. * One falls in love with the knowledge of the truth and not the physical beauty.
* With the idea of what is good, and ultimately what is right. * The Journey of Love/Upwards: to him, the intellectual journey and the journey of love are the same thing. * * The physical attraction is the beginning of a journey which will lead to love. * * Eros: the god of love * In mythology, he was looking for the ideal love for him. * Since gods are perfect, and lack nothing, Eros was not considered as a god because he was still searching for something.
* 20. Gods: perfect 20. Eros: lacks something 20. Philosophers: are like Eros, because their jobs were to search for the truth and then go share it with those below them. 20.
The majority of the people who don™t search for anything, but not because they don™t need it but because they don™t know how to. * Even the philosophers are searching for love because ultimately knowing the truth results in loving the truth. * Philosopher “ the love of knowledge 20.
Connection between love and knowledge * Philosophy influences our thought nowadays; limitations of the body etc. * * Justice * Every person living in a just way is the best at what they are there to do * One is born with certain capabilities and jobs to fulfil during their life. * Philosophers “ reason: wisdom, prudence * Soldiers “ spirit/energy: courage * Labourers “ passions: temperance (to be able to control your emotions towards the environment) * * Virtue: the good qualities which determines ones behaviour/ how one lives * In order to live in the best way possible, in any level of society, you must develop your virtues. * Everyone can have multiple virtues, but each must focus on that principle virtue of their level. * For Plato, a just state is one where all the above is taking place. * * To Plato, there was no justice in Athens because it was controlled by everyone (democracy) * A JUST state can only be run by philosophers. * * If a person is born in a particular level in society, that is his place and he can only serve at his best doing that.
* * There are some people whose nature is evil/unacceptable/ remove from what is good, such as tyrants, the Sohpists and those who try and praise the emotions of others simply by using nice words “ even the people like poets and artists, as they push others away from the truth. * * Fundamental Idea: world of forms “ poor copes of what is on earth. * * Politics; those running the country should be philosophers, since they are all familiar with all the forms. * Everything is connected as al his ideas follow the same line of though, and therefore they all fit into each other. * To move from the material world to the ideal perfect world; * * The Allegory of the Cave is the perfect idea/example. * -poor imitation (shadows) * -the philosopher who discovers what is good and shares it with others “ “knowledge is there to be shared”, otherwise he would have been a traitor since that knowledge is not his.
* -therefore, even when the philosopher goes back, the society refuses to experience the truth, since the leaders are only seeking power and not wisdom. * 1. Socrates Ideas: Most important to him. * All Platos ideas are developed from Socrates 1. Parmenides: reason “ was the main idea he followed * There was a break between them * Plato found another way on how we must reason. * * The battle between the good and the bad: * The idea that we all have a dark side which can take over (an evil lurking inside each one of us); no one is free from this. 25.
Plato was dealing with this. The passion which came from the senses can easily take over. * Reason: our soul is on earth because the evils/passions gave way. *