Explain the development and fundamental principles of the major ideologies, and compare and contrast the schools of thought within one of them.The major ideologies have different views on society and government and how they should work. Today we will be looking at these major ideologies and looking at the similarities and differences between them.Liberalism, also known as Classical Liberalism. Began in the 1600??™s, a lot different to American Liberalism, it was developed when philosopher John Locke rethought the relationship between the individual and society, as well as forming a framework for the rights and responsibilities of the individual. These ideas formed the foundation for many political systems which are still operating today.
The liberalist believes in individualism. Individual takes priority over society, focus on the needs of the individual rather than those of any group or ???collective??™. having there own interests or possessing personal and unique identities (p18 A, Heywood). Liberalist also believe in freedom, an individual has the right to make their own choices, but this freedom is not absolute.
Some behaviours such as murder is prohibited. A particular important freedom to come out of liberalism is religion, this is because many governments at the time were closely tied to a particular religious creed. Equality is the liberalists belief that no individual is morally of politically superior to another, should be entitled to the same rights and respect. Liberals believe in universalism, that individuals everywhere possess common or universal features, they are all of equal moral worth. Liberalists reject hierarchies (p21 A, Heywood). Rationalism is a belief in an individual being capable of thinking logically and rationally, it is seen logic and reason help us to solve problems. Liberalist see progression, that tradition should only be kept if it holds value.
New ideas are seen as helpful as they lead to progress in the sciences, economy and in society. The free market is were liberalism and capitalism go hand in hand, liberals are seen to like free market as it easily creates wealth, as opposed to the traditional economies which often have extensive regulation and limits in which occupations people can hold. Finally tolerance is something that liberals do not believe will happen in society naturally out of free actions of the individuals. Liberals fear that free individuals may wish to exploit others I.e.
steal their property or even turn them into slaves if it is seen in their interest to do so (p26 A, Heywood). These basic beliefs on liberalism have lead liberals to argue in favour of a limited government which gains its power from the people. This means favouring a democratic government.Conservatism, also known as Classical Conservatism. Began as a reaction against liberal ideas taking hold of Europe during the French Revolution in the late 1800??™s.
This type of conservatism is different from American Conservatism. Edmund Burke, British Member of Parliament, witnessed the early stages of the French Revolution and predicted violence and terror would soon follow. His book reflections on the French revolution in France (1790), is one of the founding texts of Classical Conservatism. Edmund Burke and other conservative members attacked liberalism for many reasons in which they argued liberalism destroyed tradition. Whilst conservatism was in haste to over turn the old and bring in the new. The liberalist and capitalists mercilessly attacked traditional institutions of belief.
In some places Classical Conservatism is seen to have faded. People who label themselves as conservatives are more likely to be similar to American Conservatives than Classical ones. But saying that there are still some Classical Conservatives, many are in Europe and have ties to old noble families and some advocate monarchism. Classical Conservatism can also be found in other parts of the world.Conservatism believes in stability , it is seen as a precious thing. Change should be made gradually in order to preserve it. Undermining stability can be very dangerous, this is because societies can easily fall into trouble causing chaos and violence.
The Classical liberals often called for revolution, which gave opportunity for great turbulence, according to the Classical Conservatives. Conservatives believe in Organic society, they see society and human beings as interlinked. Human beings cannot survive without society, human beings are nurtured by social groups. There are very few people who exist independently. These groups are seen to give us meaning, makes us feel secure. People do not like to be alone, they like to be part of something to recognise their value, doing ones duty. Concreteness in seen to focus on freedom and equality, not on the way people live everyday.
Human fallibility, conservatives see human beings being ignorant, prejudice and irrational. Liberalists are seen as unrealistic by ignoring this. Conservatives also believes Authority develops naturally just like society. Parents have authority over children in every aspect of their childhood, without contract or any sort of agreement being undertaken (p64 A, Heywood). Conservatives also believe property is seen as a value possessing a somewhat almost mystical significance for conservatives. They believe that property has a range of psychological and social advantages I.e.
provide security.Socialism is seen as a vision of human beings as social creatures united by their common humanity; poet John Donne put it, ???no man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main??™. This highlights a degree in which individual identity is fashioned by social interaction and the memberships of social groups and collective bodies (political Ideologies, website). Therefore the socialists priorities cooperation over competition and favour collectivism of individualism. Socialism was developed as a response to the Industrial Revolution. The industrial revolution started in England during the last years of the 1800??™s and spread to Europe and America by the end of the 1900??™s causing major upheavals in a short space of time. Many people were forced to abandon their agricultural ways of life for the modern merchandized world of factories. Early forms of socialism were put forward in Europe during the first part of the 1900??™s these were dubbed ???Utopian socialism???, but influential socialist theories did not emerge until industrialization expanded in the mid 1900??™s.
socialism is seen as a vision of human beings being social . Karl Marx is the best known theorist of socialism. Along with Friedrich Engels.
Marx wrote the communist manifesto (1848) as a push for revolution. Many others socialist thinkers include Karl Kautsky, Vladimir Lenin and Antonio Gramsci. Socialists believe in collectivism. Human beings being social creatures by nature and society should respect that.
Individualism is seen to be poisonous. They also believe that society and not the individual should own property. The socialists believes in the existence of common humanity, but stresses the importance of social class and have traditionally linked these views to the interest of the working classes(p99 A, Heywood). The socialist also believes that significant forms of human inequalities are a result of unequal treatment by society, rather than an unequal endowment by nature I.
e. despite natural differences in academic ability, education performance is more a reflection of social factors, such as accessing full-time schooling, quality of teaching, encouragement and support from family and the availability of resources like libraries, books and the space and time in which they can study. So liberalisms commitments to equality is what in many respects define the features of the socialist ideologies and political values which distinguishes socialism form its rivals which are liberalism and conservatism (p102 A, Heywood).
Socialism has evolved in a variety of ways . Communism and democratic socialism are the most prominent developments of socialism.With the fall of communist regimes in Russia and in Eastern Europe, communism has been in retreat for most of the 1900??™s and also the 2000??™s. take for example fewer communist movements were around the world during the Cold War, but there are still many major communist regimes which include the governments of North Korea and Cuba.Communist socialism sees a classless society in which all members jointly share the means and output of production. It has an Authoritarian and revolutionary approach to achieving socialism. Democratic socialism is seen as a peaceful and democratic approach to achieving socialism, it also emphasises a classless society in which all members jointly share means and output of production.
But unlike communist socialism, democratic socialism attempts to achieve its goals peacefully through the democratic process. They reject the need for immediate transition to socialism in favour of the gradual approach, which is achieved by working in a democratic government.Economic inequalities should be solved through welfare state, a system which provides aid to the poor and helps the unemployed. Democratic socialism has been quite successful in western Europe and Scandinavia . Germany??™s social democratic party and Britain??™s Labour party are all contemporary examples of successful political parties which have been heavily influenced by democratic socialism.In the major ideologies there are many similarities and differences between them.
Looking and Liberalism and conservatism they basically have opposite views on political and social ideals. For example conservatism values tradition and believes it should be preserved, whilst the liberalist believe that tradition should only be preserved if it is seen to be valuable, serving a purpose. We should not be afraid to over-turn tradition.Conservatives believe too much freedom is bad, it lets people ignore social responsibilities and over-looks social customs.
Were as the liberalist sees freedom as essential for human flourishing , people can be free to do as they please as long as they do not hurt others.Conservatives see reason as fallible and prone to error i.e. human beings cannot find the best way to govern through thinking. Instead, we must use our judgements and decisions on our own experiences. Were the liberalist relies on reason as its seen as a great success of the scientific revolution, this can be repeated in human affairs if we use reason.Conservatives see free-market as dangerous, this is because it breaks down traditional economic roles. It corrodes customary mores and reduces all relationships to cash transactions.
On the other hand liberalists see free-market as valuable because it unleashes huge economic growth and efficiency which enriches society.The socialists are seen to be quite opposite to conservatives also. Socialists like progress yet conservatives do not, conservatives are not against change as such, society and tradition are slowly changing but they are against ill advised change that proposes to destroy what is working reasonably well.
The socialist hates inequalities of income, property and social classes, this is why socialists see private property as the fundamental evil which divides all men. So an individual should not own property. Whilst the conservative sees property as having value, having psychological and social advantages. They believe in equality and social freedom.These political ideologies are, for the most part, unable to both be true at the same time.
So a liberal government does not usually practice socialism, nor does an absolute ruler follow liberalism. All the major ideologies have one thing in common though, and that is they have played a key role in history by reshaping governments and political movements. Page Natasha Spencer Politics