Poultry of a variety of foodsincludingpoultry products, meats,

industry is majorly growing sector and second largest industry of Pakistan after
agriculture. The poultry industry is the second largest sector after textile
with meaningful participation of 1.4% in GDP. Poultry sector is providing employment
to 1.5 million people having worth of Rs. 700 billion current investments. The
commercial poultry is contributing a significant share in protein supply in
term of meat and egg provision. The poultry meat is contributing 31% share in
total meat production in Pakistan.

Pakistan, poultry enterprise has developed rapidly in recent years. However,
various infectious diseases posed a serious threat for the survival of poultry
farming especially at small scale level, and the diseases inflicted heavy economic
losses to the country (Mustafa and Ali, 2005).number of infectious agents like
NDV, AI along with E. coli and Salmonella, were responsible for
the recent respiratory outbreaks in layer flocks around Sammundri Area. The
diseases prevalent in rural poultry mostly occurred due to poor vaccination,
poor feed, housing, and through wild and migratory birds (Khawaja et al.,

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

are one of the most importantgroups of bacteria. It is a family of
non-spore-forming,Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit the
gastrointestinaltract, having 48 genera and 219 species (ILSI,2011).Some
members of this family have significant importanceand are associated with food
spoilage while manyothers are responsible for putrefaction of a variety of foodsincludingpoultry
products, meats, milk, eggs, fish, seafoods and dairy products. Some genera
(coliform bacteria)have the ability to ferment lactose which has long beenused as indicator organism by the water and food
industry.Currently, both coliforms and enterobacteriaceae are isolatedfrom
foodstuffs for showing evidence of poor sanitationor inadequate processing
(especially heat-treatment),post-process contamination of foods and process
failure.Improper handling during evisceration and removal of intestinaltract
may cause the rupture of intestine that resultsthe contamination of meat and
other visceral organs beingcontaminated (Khan et al., 2016