Question 1: From the various periodsof music you have studied so far, choose one. Using the material in the chapterand information that you might know from other courses (I.e. history and artappreciation etc.).

Summarize the events and circumstances that drive the givenera. In that discussion place music as the focus. What, within the given periodof time, gives form and structure to the music of day? Use several solidexamples to explain your answer.

The twentieth-century musical eradefines a musical period that predominantly came to be due to technologicaldevelopments and the use of machines in creating sounds and rhythms. Theinadvertent development of radio and its use in the propagation of melodiesdrove the uptake of music across the masses in the twentieth century. Thetwentieth-century musical era is also associated with the development of a widediversity of music based on the lack of preset rules on music composition.Furthermore the lack of regulations in the musical enterprise created an environmentthat enabled musicians to actively embrace their creativity and develop newrhythms and sounds in their music. Moreover, since music was not limited toclubs and concerts, it became relatively easy for musicians to gain famethroughout their individual nations and the world. Interestingly, thedevelopment of the radio enabled audiences to be predisposed to a wide varietyof music types, and this perhaps leads to the formation of a genre known asworld music.

Additionally, the twentieth-century musical era was marked by aremarkable increase in the propagation of music based on the audience’s visualexperience. Music enthusiasts and performers, therefore, embraced the visualrepresentation of music through broadcasting concerts and music videos.The twentieth-century musicrevolution was also accompanied by an increase in the portability of music.Growth in technology drove the development of portable music devices such asthe mp3-players and Walkman’s.

Furthermore, the development of headphones enabledindividuals who were sitting next to each other to listen to similar orentirely different musical performances. Inevitably, the culture of headphonesand earphones has become predominant in society, and individuals of variousages have embraced its use in listening to music. With the development ofportable music devices, copyright laws were strengthened (Pbs.org, n.d).Unfortunately, further developments in technology promoted the illegalproduction, copying, and proliferation of music regardless of the formulatedcopyright laws.

Sound recording technology played anintegral part in the formation of the twentieth-century musical era. Itpromoted the generation of music by ensuring the production of music wasrelatively cheap and recorded music could be easily transported. Notably, inthe twentieth-century musical era, music was recorded and transmitted oncompact disks, vinyl records, compact cassettes, televisions, radio, and in the1990’s through the internet (Smither).

In 1995, the music industry discoveredthe concept of multi-track recording and mixing. This played a crucial role inthe recording and development of the rock and pop music genres since it enabledproducers to record multiple vocal and instrument tracks and put them togetherin a way that could not be possible in a live performance. Moreover, the ideaof the multi-track recording played an integral role in the development ofvarious subdivisions of classical music such as acousmatic and Musiqueconcrete (newworldsencyclopedia.

com). Interestingly, in the 1970s, therecord turntable was repurposed by African-American musicians into aninstrument (newsworldencyclopedia.com). These musicians created the rhythmic”scratching” melodies by using the vinyl record set on a turntable.  Question 2: The name of the courseis Music appreciation.

What specifically does that mean? In terms of what youhave studied this summer, define the term. In addition, I want you to imaginethe following situation. Imagine that you have been given the task of settingup a short course in music appreciation, based on the definition you havegiven. What would you include and why? In other words, pick out what you thinkis important to include in such a course. You should consider styles, artists,composers, time frames, instrumentation, music theory (part one of the text)you have to think in terms of what is important. Make sure you substantiateyour response with specific information.Music appreciation refers to the cultivation ofa culture that focuses on understanding and improving an individual’s sensitivitytowards music and its effects on emotional and social well-being.

Notably, thedevelopment of a culture of music appreciation will enhance one’s understandingof the lives and contribution of musicians and music producers, and the essenceof technology in the development of various music styles. Moreover, musicappreciation will enhance a student’s perspectives towards various concepts ofmusic such as tone, rhythm, and the use of instruments. An in-depth study ofmusic and its development will also reveal the native culture of the musiciansand their original contributions towards the development of music genres andthe propagation of specific cultural undertones. If for example, a student waslooking into African-American music that was predominant in the 1970s, thestudent will learn of the innate struggle of African individuals against theirharassment and oppression by the police. Moreover, a student will learn of the highcrime rates that were predominant in the Black-American neighborhoods and thedevelopment of a sense of community in this localities. Kirk-Duggan, forexample, suggests that the music produced by Black-American singers in theearly twentieth century gave them a chance to express their humanity regardlessof their horrific oppression.  Theappreciation of African-American music will thus essentially improve one’sunderstanding of the set of social and economic injustices that black peopleunderwent while also enabling an individual to appreciate the creativity,humanity, and passion that was blatantly expressed throughout their music.

If I were to create a course on musicappreciation, I would focus my classes on the history of individuals and thedevelopment of various musical styles across history. Furthermore, I would lookinto the development of each musical period as a consequence of the social andtechnological changes of the period and thus delve into the development ofmusical styles and the use of various technologies (Fitzpatrick). If, for example, the course I develop isfocused on classical musical, I will look into the types of musical instrumentsused in a specific music period and will analyze the musical compilations ofmusical geniuses such as Mozart. An understanding of Mozart’s classical musiccompilations will perhaps increase my perceptiveness on adequately structuredand effectively composed music. Music appreciation, I believe, focuses on morethan understanding the reasons why specific genres of music were formed or whyspecific messages were passed through songs.

One has to also appreciate theeffort and creativeness of musical composers and artists. The development ofperfectly structured musical compositions and the design of lyrics that touchthe emotional centers of listeners is an art, and thus it needs to beappreciated. Moreover, the intonation and clarity of a song’s message also needto be recognized and treasured. Any music appreciation course, therefore, hasto teach individuals to listen keenly to the vocal representation of amusician’s ideas, note the instruments used and the consequent emotion andpsychological effects of the song, and find a link between style, time-frameand the artist of the song. If for example, a student was focusing on a song byLouis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald such as Cheekto Cheek and can’t we be friends,he/she would note that the genre of the music is blues and vocal jazz.Moreover, a music appreciation student should observe the music prowess of bothsingers and the precise balance between Louis’s gravelly voice and Ella’s sweetand silvery voice.

Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald musical compositions area classic example of perfectly balanced music that influences the emotionalstates of individuals. Understanding the background for their musical prowessmight thus drive an individual’s appreciation of the blues genre of music.            Question 3: Choose any onecontemporary artists, style, composer, group, etc.

, that you find worthy ofstudy. Explain the merit of this person, concept, style, genre, etc. to me asthoughI have no concept of what you are talking about. Using what you have learnedthis semester in terms of music, make me understand what you like and why . . ..  Most of all don’t simply pullsomething that you think I would like for you to write about.

Write about whattruly interests you. In some cases you will be making some critical judgmentsin your essay, so support them accordingly.One of the best music composers andperformers of all-time is Michael Jackson.

Michael Jackson performed andcomposed numerous songs that, at the time of his death, had one of the highestsales numbers in the world. Often dubbed the “king of pop,” Michael Jackson createdhit songs such as Billie Jean, Beat it and Thriller. Notably, he was first introduced to the world of music asa singer in the Jackson Five band.

Later on, he became a solo musician andcomposer of his own songs. Like the musical genius Mozart, Michael fullyrealized his songs before he wrote them down or produced them. During the”dangerous” court case of 1994, Jackson said that the actual words, chords, andpresentation of a song came to him like a gift (Holmes). Jackson’s songs employed the use oftechnology to promote the development of rhythm and a unique sound that wouldengage his fans.

His first song Wanna BeStartin, for example, used an upbeat tempo that was made using a drummachine (Cabrera). The drummachine created a steady and clear drumbeat that captured the attention oflisteners immediately after the song began. Moreover, Jackson employed the useof multi-tracking to integrate various sounds and instruments throughout thesong.

I think that this song was composed well. However, I find that the drumbeats loop can become dull over time regardless of the use of variousinstruments and styles in the song. Interestingly, Michael Jacksonemployed numerous styles in his songs. The song Beat It off his first album Thriller,for example, seems like a fusion of rock and pop genres. Contrarily, the song Pretty Young Thing is mainly based onthe funk genre. Most of Jackson’s song also vary in scale and speed. The song Beat It is based on the E minor scaleand has a beat per minute rate (bpm) of 139 while the song Human Nature is based off the D major scale and has a bpm of 93(Lucy Jones).

Moreover, Jackson could not read or write music. He, however,played a little guitar, keyboard, drums, and percussion but was not entirely proficientat it. Furthermore, Jackson lacked any formal composition training. It is thussurprising that he could compose enchanting music and fully figure out thesong’s progression even before he had recorded or produced it.

I find the arrangement ofinstruments and effects in most of Michael Jackson’s songs particularlyenthralling.  In his track Human Nature, off the Thriller album, for example, the songstarts with a calming melody created by a keyboard and then passes on to astring of broken guitar chords. The shift from the keyboard to guitarinstruments occasions the development and presentation of the song’s lyrics.Notably, as the song progresses, the lyrics of the song are accompanied by astaccato feel and a percussion that perhaps enhance the receptibility ofJackson’s lyrics in the chorus.

This song also seems to induce relaxation in anindividual due to its use of a guitar and long tenuto sounding vocals In conclusion, the artistic works ofMichael Jackson represent one of the most formidable music compositions andperformances. Jackson is one of the musicians in the twentieth-century musicera. He employs the use of devices such as synthesizers and drum machines toenhance his music and increase its rhythm and progress.

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