Racial discrimination means simply
treating someone poorly or unfairly or harassing, because of his or her skin
colour or descent or ethnic & national origin or by variation heavily
influenced by cultural ideologies (cultural racism), which led them to struggle
for civil rights and demands for equality.

Racism is different than racial
discrimination in action and intent. Racism means a wider phenomenon than
racial discrimination which means racism involves just a belief while another
involves an action.

 Racism is the belief in the superiority of one
race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards the
people based on their race or ethnicity

Naturally, humanity has divided into
racism as a direct result of slavery and the slave trade. Today, the term
“racism” does not easily fall under a single definition. Racism is a complex
concept that can involve prejudice, bigotry and discrimination, each of those,
but it cannot be equated with nor is it synonymous with these other terms.

Even today, Racism, as an ideology,
exists in a society at both the individual and institutional level. The
holocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led to the
death of, millions of people based on race.

More than 250 million people
worldwide suffer under a hidden apartheid of segregation, modern day’s slavery
and other extreme form of discrimination because they were born into a
marginalized origin.

Racism is both cause and a product
of forced displacement, and an obstacle in its solution.

Racism has played a major role
in genocides such as the Armenian genocide, and The Holocaust, and colonial projects like the European colonization of
theAmericas, Africa, and Asia. Indigenous peoples have been –and are– often
subject to racist attitudes.

The UN convention concludes that
superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally
condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no justification for
racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory, or in practice. Practices and
ideologies of racism are condemned by the United Nations in the Declaration
of Human Rights.

Types of racism

1)    Representational Racism

2)    Ideological Racism

3)    Discursive Racism

4)    Interactional Racism

5)    Institutional Racism

6)    Structural Racism

7)    Systemic Racism



1)    intentional discrimination,
(Intentional, Explicit Discrimination)

2)    subtle discrimination,(Subtle,
Unconscious, Automatic Discrimination)

3)    statistical profiling (Statistical
Discrimination and Profiling)

4)     discriminatory practices embedded in an
organizational culture (Organizational Processes)

Whereas first three involve
behaviors of individuals and the last one involves organizations


an lore

The Book
of Genesis’s biblical curse on Canaan,
which was often misinterpreted as a
curse on his fatherHam, was used to justify slavery in 19th century America.

Lewis has cited the Greek
philosopher Aristotle who, in his discussion of slavery, stated that while Greeks are free by nature, ‘barbarians’ (non-Greeks)

slaves by nature, in that it is in their nature to be more willing to submit to
a despotic government?

While Aristotle makes remarks about
the most natural slaves being those with strong bodies and slave souls (unfit
for rule, unintelligent) which would seem to imply a physical basis for
discrimination, he also explicitly states that the right kind of souls and
bodies don’t always go together

Polygenist Christoph
Meiners, for example, split mankind into
two divisions which he labelled the “beautiful White race” and the
“ugly Black race”. He viewed only the white race as beautiful. He
considered ugly races to be inferior, immoral and animal-like.


– aversive racism

Aversive racism is latest form of
racism, which can be considered embedded in social processes and structure,
which is more tough to explore as well as remains challenge. This aversive
racism is still undergoing subconsciously in many countries where even racism
has become taboo too.

such racism behaviour happens
without the conscious awareness towards an attitude or object. such implicit
attitudes are not consciously identified. It may be because of traces of past
experience, that brings, favourable or unfavourable feeling, thought , feelings
or actions that have an influence on the behaviour of which the individual may
not be aware of.

Therefore, such racism can influence
the processing of Mind when they are subjected to exposed to faces of different
colours . such exposure can influence the minds of individuals and they can
cause subconscious racism in the behaviour of individuals towards other people
or even towards object or attitude

In many parts of the world people
were denied civil rights in their own countries, ,only because of their race or
national descent.

Therefore, subconscious racism can
influence our visual processing and how our minds work when we are subliminally
exposed to faces of different colours. Such exposures influence our minds and
they can cause subconscious racism in our behaviour towards other people or
even towards objects.

Even today the Contemporary authors
like Gladwell use subtle unstated stereotypes in his work, The Tipping Point’,
that  a tactic President
Obama called ‘dog whistle racism’.

Thus, racist thoughts and actions
can arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware.

Recent research has shown that
individuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-based
subconscious biases in their decision-making processes. While such
“subconscious racial biases” do not fully fit the definition of
racism, their impact can be similar, though typically less pronounced, not
being explicit, conscious or deliberate

law assuring human Rights

law and the international convention
Guaranteed to protect the rights of the e people against the racism and

These laws makes this unlawful to
discriminate the people on the ground of color , race, ethnicity or original in
any of the prohibited areas of public life.

At first.  In 1919, a proposal to include a racial equality
provision in the Covenantof
the League of Nations was
supported by a majority, but not adopted in the ParisPeace
Conference, 1919.

. In 1943, Japan and its allies
declared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be their aim at the
Greater East Asia Conference.

Article 1 of the 1945 UN
Charter includes “promoting and
encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all
without distinction as to race” as UN purpose.

Also in 1950, the European Convention
on Human Rights was adopted, widely used on
racial discrimination issues.

The United Nations uses the
definition of racial discrimination laid out in the International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of RacialDiscrimination, adopted in 1966 defines “racial discrimination” broadly
and concretely as :

… any
distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color,
descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of
nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal
footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic,
social, cultural or any other field of public life. (Part 1 of Article 1 of the
U.N. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial


2001, the European Union explicitly
banned racism, along with many other forms of social discrimination, in
the Charter
of Fundamental Rights of theEuropean Union,
the legal effect of which, if any, would necessarily be limited to Institutions of the
European Union: “Article 21 of the charter
prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, color, ethnic or social
origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other
opinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexual
orientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality”

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United
Nations was the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR was adopted by the General Assembly of the United
Nations, with Australia’s support, in the aftermath of the Second World War in
1948. The UDHR recognises that if people are to be treated with dignity, they
require economic rights, social rights including education, and the rights to
cultural and political participation and civil liberty. Article 2 asserts that
everyone is entitled to these rights “without distinction of any kind, such as
race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or
social origin, property, birth or other status.”


As a United Nations declaration, the UDHR does not create
binding legal obligations on the member states of the United Nations. It is
referred to as an aspirational statement because it describes the human
condition to which civilised nations should aspire. Since 1948, the UDHR has
been the source of the later legally binding international human rights
conventions. The UDHR has great moral force and is sometimes referred to as the
“blueprint” document for human rights.

The World Conference Against
Racism (WCAR) is a series of international events organized by UNESCO to promote struggle against racism ideologies
and behaviours. Four conferences have been held so far, in 1978, 1983, 2001,
and 2009. Founded after World War II and the Holocaust as a
dependent body of the United Nations, UNESCO started as soon as it was created
to promote scientific studies concerning ethnic groups and their
diffusion in public opinion to dispel pseudo-scientific rationalizations of
racism. One of its first published works was The RaceQuestion in 1950,
signed by various internationally renowned scholars.

The 1978 World Conference Against Racism
was held in Geneva,
Switzerland. A major focus on the conference was South Africa’s apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination.

The 1983 World Conference Against Racism
was also held in Geneva,

The 1983 World Conference Against Racism
was also held in Geneva,

The 2009 World Conference Against Racism
was held in Geneva,
Switzerland. Canada, Israel, the United States of America, New Zealand,
Germany, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, Poland and, after some initial skepticism, Australia announced
they would not participate in the conference.


INTERNATIONAL conventions to save the rest:


Equality of Treatment (Accident
Compensation) Convention, 1925

Convention against Discrimination in
Education, 1960

Equality of Treatment (Social
Security) Convention, 1962

Convention concerning Migrations in
Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment

of Migrant Workers, 1975

Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979

Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965

Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities, 2006

Discrimination (Employment and
Occupation) Convention, 1958

Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951

Protocol 12 to the European
Convention on Human Rights, 2000

Inter-American Convention against
Racism, Racial Discrimination and Related Forms of Intolerance, 2013

Inter-American Convention against
All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance, 2013


“All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights”. These first few famous words of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights 60 years ago established the basic premise of
international human rights law. Yet today, the fight against discrimination remains
a daily struggle for millions around the globe. Starting on Human Rights Day
2009 and continuing throughout 2010, the UN human rights office has a focus on


The Office of the High Commissioner
for Human Rights is a world leader in the stand against the forces of
discrimination. As the guardian of international human rights law, the UN Human
Rights office advocates for and promotes human rights reforms in many countries
across the globe and throughout the UN community.


The United Nations has since its
very beginning set as one of its goals ” to reaffirm faith in fundamental human
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person” without distinction as to
race, sex, language, or religion. as this phenomenon is more subtle, more corrosive
and more resilient than anyone had thought. For millions of people globally,
the struggle to extract themselves from situations of discrimination at almost
every turn in their daily lives is an impossible ambition. Tragically, as we
have seen in the past twenty years, policies of ethnic cleansing and genocide,
policies based on discriminatory ideologies, have led to destruction,

Exile and death. Despite the
challenges and setbacks, there has been and continues to be a rejection of
discrimination. There have been enough successes to demonstrate that this
scourge can be eradicated.


Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

UNESCO marks March 21 as the yearly International
Day for the Elimination ofRacial Discrimination, in memory of the events that occurred on March 21, 1960
in Sharpeville, South
Africa, where police killed demonstrators
protesting against the apartheid regime.


Anti racism

includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which are adopted or
developed in order to oppose racism. In general, it promotes an eVen handed
society in which people are not discriminated against on the basis of race.

Movements such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement were examples of anti-racist movements. 

Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element of anti-racist
movements, although this was not always the case. 

Hate crime laws, affirmative action,
and bans on racist speech are also examples of government policy which is
intended to suppress racism.


Every individual have the rights to
be treated fairely, with respect and to be free from unwelcome racial
discrimination And each person have right to the equal enjoyment of civil,
political, economic, and cultural rights and entitled to self – determination
and the protection of their language, culture, heritage and relationship to the

In generality they have the right
not to be harassed, taunted or teased because of our color , our accent , the
way we dress , the food we eat or anything else related to our race or



Born with dignity

Determined, in an era when
globalization and technology have contributed considerably to bringing people
together, to materialize the notion of a human family based on equality,
dignity and solidarity, and to make the twenty-first century a century of human
rights, the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and
related intolerance and the realization of genuine equality of opportunity and
treatment for all individuals and peoples,

Noting with grave concern that
despite the efforts of the international community, the principal objectives of
the three Decades to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination have not been
attained and that countless human beings continue to the present day to be
victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

individual gather together in a spirit of renewed political will and commitment
to universal equality, justice and dignity and each salute the memory of all
victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance
all over the world.


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