Racial discrimination means simplytreating someone poorly or unfairly or harassing, because of his or her skincolour or descent or ethnic & national origin or by variation heavilyinfluenced by cultural ideologies (cultural racism), which led them to strugglefor civil rights and demands for equality.Racism is different than racialdiscrimination in action and intent. Racism means a wider phenomenon thanracial discrimination which means racism involves just a belief while anotherinvolves an action. Racism is the belief in the superiority of onerace over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards thepeople based on their race or ethnicity Naturally, humanity has divided intoracism as a direct result of slavery and the slave trade. Today, the term”racism” does not easily fall under a single definition. Racism is a complexconcept that can involve prejudice, bigotry and discrimination, each of those,but it cannot be equated with nor is it synonymous with these other terms.
Even today, Racism, as an ideology,exists in a society at both the individual and institutional level. Theholocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led to thedeath of, millions of people based on race. More than 250 million peopleworldwide suffer under a hidden apartheid of segregation, modern day’s slaveryand other extreme form of discrimination because they were born into amarginalized origin. Racism is both cause and a productof forced displacement, and an obstacle in its solution. Racism has played a major rolein genocides such as the Armenian genocide, and The Holocaust, and colonial projects like the European colonization oftheAmericas, Africa, and Asia.
Indigenous peoples have been –and are– oftensubject to racist attitudes.The UN convention concludes thatsuperiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morallycondemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no justification forracial discrimination, anywhere, in theory, or in practice. Practices andideologies of racism are condemned by the United Nations in the Declarationof Human Rights.
Types of racism 1) Representational Racism 2) Ideological Racism 3) Discursive Racism 4) Interactional Racism 5) Institutional Racism 6) Structural Racism 7) Systemic Racism TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION1) intentional discrimination,(Intentional, Explicit Discrimination)2) subtle discrimination,(Subtle,Unconscious, Automatic Discrimination) 3) statistical profiling (StatisticalDiscrimination and Profiling) 4) discriminatory practices embedded in anorganizational culture (Organizational Processes)Whereas first three involvebehaviors of individuals and the last one involves organizations Racism,an loreThe Bookof Genesis’s biblical curse on Canaan,which was often misinterpreted as acurse on his fatherHam, was used to justify slavery in 19th century America.BernardLewis has cited the Greekphilosopher Aristotle who, in his discussion of slavery, stated that while Greeks are free by nature, ‘barbarians’ (non-Greeks) Areslaves by nature, in that it is in their nature to be more willing to submit toa despotic government?While Aristotle makes remarks aboutthe most natural slaves being those with strong bodies and slave souls (unfitfor rule, unintelligent) which would seem to imply a physical basis fordiscrimination, he also explicitly states that the right kind of souls andbodies don’t always go togetherPolygenist ChristophMeiners, for example, split mankind intotwo divisions which he labelled the “beautiful White race” and the”ugly Black race”. He viewed only the white race as beautiful.
Heconsidered ugly races to be inferior, immoral and animal-like. Today– aversive racism Aversive racism is latest form ofracism, which can be considered embedded in social processes and structure,which is more tough to explore as well as remains challenge. This aversiveracism is still undergoing subconsciously in many countries where even racismhas become taboo too.such racism behaviour happenswithout the conscious awareness towards an attitude or object. such implicitattitudes are not consciously identified.
It may be because of traces of pastexperience, that brings, favourable or unfavourable feeling, thought , feelingsor actions that have an influence on the behaviour of which the individual maynot be aware of. Therefore, such racism can influencethe processing of Mind when they are subjected to exposed to faces of differentcolours . such exposure can influence the minds of individuals and they cancause subconscious racism in the behaviour of individuals towards other peopleor even towards object or attitudeIn many parts of the world peoplewere denied civil rights in their own countries, ,only because of their race ornational descent.Therefore, subconscious racism caninfluence our visual processing and how our minds work when we are subliminallyexposed to faces of different colours. Such exposures influence our minds andthey can cause subconscious racism in our behaviour towards other people oreven towards objects. Even today the Contemporary authorslike Gladwell use subtle unstated stereotypes in his work, The Tipping Point’,that a tactic PresidentObama called ‘dog whistle racism’.Thus, racist thoughts and actionscan arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware.
Recent research has shown thatindividuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-basedsubconscious biases in their decision-making processes. While such”subconscious racial biases” do not fully fit the definition ofracism, their impact can be similar, though typically less pronounced, notbeing explicit, conscious or deliberateInternationallaw assuring human Rights Internationallaw and the international conventionGuaranteed to protect the rights of the e people against the racism anddiscrimination.These laws makes this unlawful todiscriminate the people on the ground of color , race, ethnicity or original inany of the prohibited areas of public life.
At first. In 1919, a proposal to include a racial equalityprovision in the Covenantofthe League of Nations wassupported by a majority, but not adopted in the ParisPeaceConference, 1919.. In 1943, Japan and its alliesdeclared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be their aim at theGreater East Asia Conference. Article 1 of the 1945 UNCharter includes “promoting andencouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for allwithout distinction as to race” as UN purpose.Also in 1950, the European Conventionon Human Rights was adopted, widely used onracial discrimination issues.
The United Nations uses thedefinition of racial discrimination laid out in the InternationalConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of RacialDiscrimination, adopted in 1966 defines “racial discrimination” broadlyand concretely as : … anydistinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color,descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect ofnullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equalfooting, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic,social, cultural or any other field of public life. (Part 1 of Article 1 of theU.
N. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of RacialDiscrimination) In2001, the European Union explicitlybanned racism, along with many other forms of social discrimination, inthe Charterof Fundamental Rights of theEuropean Union,the legal effect of which, if any, would necessarily be limited to Institutions of theEuropean Union: “Article 21 of the charterprohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, color, ethnic or socialorigin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any otheropinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexualorientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality”Universal Declaration of Human RightsThefirst significant international human rights instrument developed by the UnitedNations was the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR was adopted by the General Assembly of the UnitedNations, with Australia’s support, in the aftermath of the Second World War in1948. The UDHR recognises that if people are to be treated with dignity, theyrequire economic rights, social rights including education, and the rights tocultural and political participation and civil liberty. Article 2 asserts thateveryone is entitled to these rights “without distinction of any kind, such asrace, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial origin, property, birth or other status.” As a United Nations declaration, the UDHR does not createbinding legal obligations on the member states of the United Nations. It isreferred to as an aspirational statement because it describes the humancondition to which civilised nations should aspire. Since 1948, the UDHR hasbeen the source of the later legally binding international human rightsconventions.
The UDHR has great moral force and is sometimes referred to as the”blueprint” document for human rights.The World Conference AgainstRacism (WCAR) is a series of international events organized by UNESCO to promote struggle against racism ideologiesand behaviours. Four conferences have been held so far, in 1978, 1983, 2001,and 2009. Founded after World War II and the Holocaust as adependent body of the United Nations, UNESCO started as soon as it was createdto promote scientific studies concerning ethnic groups and theirdiffusion in public opinion to dispel pseudo-scientific rationalizations ofracism.
One of its first published works was The RaceQuestion in 1950,signed by various internationally renowned scholars.The 1978 World Conference Against Racismwas held in Geneva,Switzerland. A major focus on the conference was South Africa’s apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination.The 1983 World Conference Against Racismwas also held in Geneva,SwitzerlandThe 1983 World Conference Against Racismwas also held in Geneva,SwitzerlandThe 2009 World Conference Against Racismwas held in Geneva,Switzerland. Canada, Israel, the United States of America, New Zealand,Germany, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, Poland and, after some initial skepticism, Australia announcedthey would not participate in the conference.
INTERNATIONAL conventions to save the rest: Equality of Treatment (AccidentCompensation) Convention, 1925Convention against Discrimination inEducation, 1960Equality of Treatment (SocialSecurity) Convention, 1962Convention concerning Migrations inAbusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatmentof Migrant Workers, 1975Convention on the Elimination of AllForms of Discrimination against Women, 1979Convention on the Elimination of AllForms of Racial Discrimination, 1965Convention on the Rights of Personswith Disabilities, 2006Discrimination (Employment andOccupation) Convention, 1958Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951Protocol 12 to the EuropeanConvention on Human Rights, 2000Inter-American Convention againstRacism, Racial Discrimination and Related Forms of Intolerance, 2013Inter-American Convention againstAll Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance, 2013 “All human beings are born free andequal in dignity and rights”. These first few famous words of the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights 60 years ago established the basic premise ofinternational human rights law. Yet today, the fight against discrimination remainsa daily struggle for millions around the globe. Starting on Human Rights Day2009 and continuing throughout 2010, the UN human rights office has a focus ondiscrimination. The Office of the High Commissionerfor Human Rights is a world leader in the stand against the forces ofdiscrimination. As the guardian of international human rights law, the UN HumanRights office advocates for and promotes human rights reforms in many countriesacross the globe and throughout the UN community. The United Nations has since itsvery beginning set as one of its goals ” to reaffirm faith in fundamental humanrights, in the dignity and worth of the human person” without distinction as torace, sex, language, or religion.
as this phenomenon is more subtle, more corrosiveand more resilient than anyone had thought. For millions of people globally,the struggle to extract themselves from situations of discrimination at almostevery turn in their daily lives is an impossible ambition. Tragically, as wehave seen in the past twenty years, policies of ethnic cleansing and genocide,policies based on discriminatory ideologies, have led to destruction,Exile and death. Despite thechallenges and setbacks, there has been and continues to be a rejection ofdiscrimination.
There have been enough successes to demonstrate that thisscourge can be eradicated. InternationalDay for the Elimination of Racial DiscriminationUNESCO marks March 21 as the yearly InternationalDay for the Elimination ofRacial Discrimination, in memory of the events that occurred on March 21, 1960in Sharpeville, SouthAfrica, where police killed demonstratorsprotesting against the apartheid regime. Anti racismAnti-racismincludes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which are adopted ordeveloped in order to oppose racism. In general, it promotes an eVen handedsociety in which people are not discriminated against on the basis of race.Movements such as the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement were examples of anti-racist movements. Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element of anti-racistmovements, although this was not always the case. Hate crime laws, affirmative action,and bans on racist speech are also examples of government policy which isintended to suppress racism. Every individual have the rights tobe treated fairely, with respect and to be free from unwelcome racialdiscrimination And each person have right to the equal enjoyment of civil,political, economic, and cultural rights and entitled to self – determinationand the protection of their language, culture, heritage and relationship to theenvironment.
In generality they have the rightnot to be harassed, taunted or teased because of our color , our accent , theway we dress , the food we eat or anything else related to our race orethnicity. Born with dignity Determined, in an era whenglobalization and technology have contributed considerably to bringing peopletogether, to materialize the notion of a human family based on equality,dignity and solidarity, and to make the twenty-first century a century of humanrights, the eradication of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia andrelated intolerance and the realization of genuine equality of opportunity andtreatment for all individuals and peoples,Noting with grave concern thatdespite the efforts of the international community, the principal objectives ofthe three Decades to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination have not beenattained and that countless human beings continue to the present day to bevictims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Everyindividual gather together in a spirit of renewed political will and commitmentto universal equality, justice and dignity and each salute the memory of allvictims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intoleranceall over the world.