Restaurant companies are necessarily retailers of got
ready foods, and their operating operation is effected by many of the samefactors that act
on old and wise do trade with general public stores. For the most part, stores
for taking food have business models that are relatively simple,
not hard to get through knowledge, and the order on the Value Line page is the same as that of a quality
example to do with Industry Company. All the same, there are a number of nothing
like it factors to take into account when making an
outer covering decisions looking upon this greatly sized and segmented industry. 

Competition between stores
for taking food is very strong (great), since taking food selections commonly
have existence. And, while there are certainly chief players in this industry
(especially among mass-produced food traders), no one company has the market controlled. In
fact, almost every store for taking food placing must take
part in competition not only against other publicly traded chains, but also a wide order of small, local business houses. Competitors cover everything from delis and pizzerias to fine-dining stores
for taking food. And, of course, it is relatively
simple, not hard to forgo got ready foods, completely, in kind
act of home cooking, which is usually a less high
in price thing for which selection is made. In this way, store
for taking food meals are done as seems good (gets)
something for money, and the industry takes care of to be highly cyclical.


Top-line growth is representatively produced in 2 ways, opening places and making
stronger same-store sales. Opening new doors is a straight-forward secret
design, and usually the main driver of income when a company is in its early stages. As a chaingrows in size, however, it becomes increasingly hard to take helps. The most
good, most profitable places are made certain first, andthen managers must be careful not to place stores
for taking food too close together, for fear that they make
food out of another of the same sort each other’s sales.

Comparable-store sales, or “comps”, is an of
great value metric to look at when getting at details stores
for taking food. Comps are particularly important once a company reaches growth, since they become the first driver of growth.product new
things and menu-price increases are 2 of the most common ways to increase same-store sales. Making
again having existence places is another way to push
up person in another’s place business trade. In addition, advertisements and limited-timeoffers are widely used to get
attention from small stores for eating food made in the building. Investors should also make
payment to attention to trends in the dollar value of the mean person
in another’s place check, as this can rough building addition
of light on what exactly is driving sales.


Management’s Execution and power to hand
over a list that appeals to a wide range of senses
of taste go a long way toward working out a store
for taking food’s amounts in addition. Most companies in this industry have operating
amounts in addition in the middle- to upper 13 to
19, and net profit amounts in addition in the middle- to high-single any
numbers 0 to 9. Food costs are obviously an important line one
thing on a list and, at times, can fluctuate roughly. Prices for staples, such as small,
hard growth on foot, chicken, beef and store
for milk, can move greatly, depending on factors like the
years produce gives in, food costs and other out-side request factors.

Labor is another chief price for service-oriented stores
for taking food. Representatively, workers make money for small regular
payments (not by hours, bit), often at or just slightly above government-ordered least
possible or recorded payments. Workers that fall into this sort are usually mass-produced
food workers, dishwashers and bus boys. Servers,
who make the great cat of Africa’s part of their money through (pointed)
ends, are usually undergone punishment for even less. As
an outcome of that, changes to united governments or state minimum-wage laws can have a readily
noted force of meeting blow on a store for taking food’s costs and margins.


Fast Food vs simple Dining

Restaurants can be loosely broken down into 2 widegroups: tightly food and simple
clothing seated-down business houses. The same general factors had
a discussion about above give strong orders the doing a
play of each group, but seated-down stores for
taking food take care of to be more high in price, makingthem even more sensitive to user budgets and the being
healthy of the interests, money, goods. mass-produced food stores
for taking food, being less dependent on relation to
do with the science of producing, distribution, and using up of goods and work conditions,
are better attack-stopping an outer covering plays. In a recessionary general
condition, their toilet and value make them good-lookingselections for small
stores for eating food made in the building looking for cheap meals or for those trading down from casual-dining

Convenience is a chief part of the mass-produced
food business scaled-copy, so a sizeable network of stores is most
important to a good outcome. In addition to undergoing
expansion quick meal made of meat between 2 pieces of bread chains, there
are a number of greatly sized players that chief
place on special places, such as pieces of bread with
food between them and pizza.

Fast food is responsible for most of the industries between
nation’s sales. out-of-country markets offer sizeable growth possible
unused quality for companies ready to take on the physical
acts offer of decisions at law a with a good outcome signs
making clearthat appeals to a wide order of Customs and tastes. A well-know very name provides a very
great leg up when undergoing growth over-seas, which is one reason why mass-produced
food makers rule the between nations ring. The toilet of these stores
for taking food and their representatively inoffensive lists
of selections, which Appeal to most small stores for eating food
made in the building, are other pluses.

Investment Considerations

Restaurant stocks have a number of good-looking given
properties. Their business models are simple, not hard to get
through knowledge, as are the factors that affect their doing
a play. Most are cyclical, so wide of money and
goods conditions often play an out-sized rollin the group’s over-all operation. However, mass-produced
food retailers can sometimes make ready more keep safe in a down interests,
money, goods. Reasoned investors might discover the stocks of in
full growth operators taking from lower to higher authority as growth-and-income properties. Conversely, fledgling companies, with new ornothing
like it forms and sizes, use most of their money move
liquid-like for expansion, and their stocks may offer good-looking 3- to5-year increase
in value possible unused quality to the more venturesome.


restaurants in Ludhiana

ü  Bistro 226

ü  Yellow Chilli

ü  Barbeque Nation

ü  Baba Chicken

ü  Indian Summer

ü  Aman Chicken

ü  Sagar Ratna

ü  Rishi da dhaba

ü  Bistro Flamme Bois

ü  Friends Dhaba

ü  Hawai Adda

ü  Basant Vegetarian Restaurant

ü  Kitchen At 95

ü  Red Mango

ü  Ghanta Ghar

ü  Wadi Haveli Restaurant


Review of literature

Nasir et al (2014), our research is on the things that are considered as most important
before visiting a restaurant. The selected variables are price, quality,
environment, security and exceptional service. We have find out that the price
is the most important factor for people. Price is ideal determinant for
increasing the satisfaction level of restaurant consumers. A model for customer
satisfaction is proposed that tells the major factors in determining customer
satisfaction. So these five factors should be considered when formulating a
marketing strategy. However priority of one factor over another would be
diverse for different regions.


Sabir et al (2014), customer satisfaction is very important for
every organization; either they are service sector or the privet sector.
Customers are the actual agents or stakeholders for determining or best judging
the success of any product or service. The Service quality, physical design,
product quality and price, if they think customer satisfaction as part of their
marketing strategy yet among all these four variables they should take service
quality as the most important tool of customer satisfaction.


Deivanai (2013), In today’s world,
Fast food is something that almost everyone, right from kids to the oldies, loves and talks about fast
food. Fast food is one of the world’s
fastest growing food types. Mostly competes on price, location and food
quality. An adult play an important role in the buying process reasons such as
tasty, cleanliness. Convenience, family outings and celebration of special
occasions are considered important.


Khan et al (2012),All types of business organization customer
satisfaction is the most important issue, and considered as most reliable
feedback, for the excellence of any business organization. Customer
satisfaction is the part of marketing and play important role in the market.
And for measuring the customer satisfaction this study was conducted and to
examine the relationship between the customer satisfaction to Promotion,
Service quality, Customer expectations, Brand, Physical Environment, Price, and
Taste of the product. Brand, Service quality, physical environment and
promotion are the key determinant of customer satisfaction in the fast food

Nezakati et al (2011), with
the changing lifestyle of consumers, more educated people and affluent, people
tend to eating-out especially in fast food restaurants. Along with the heavily
promote through media and information technology exposure, customers has
variety choice of fast food pattern and restaurants. Therefore, local fast
foods restaurants have to be sensitive to these changing trends and to be
innovative and get prepare to change accordingly to avoid from losing their
existing and future potential customers. The aim of this study is to examine
how the respondent’s perception will be influenced by factors of customer
loyalty towards preferred fast food restaurants. Besides, this study will
provide important information for local fast food restaurant business to become
more competitive in the current business practices circumstances.


Ubeja , Bedia (2011), with
the help of factor analysis we have found 
new factors are Product conscious-ness, comfort with entertainment
seeker, Extra Service Conscious, Store and Hygiene consciousness, Price
consciousness, Billing Flexibility & Facility, Sales People Consciousness,
and Con- fused by Over Choice of Store, Employee Con-sciousness and Taste
consciousness. In addition, this study shows that the average customer was very
conscious about organized retailing, people are very conscious about extra
facilities and services provide by personal selling; they also want hygiene and
clean atmosphere.


(2011), a major public health threat in Nordic societies
is the increasing rates of overweight. The fast food sector is an important
arena to study in order to open up for changes in this trend especially among
children and the young. The aim of the project Nordic Young health:
possibilities and barriers for new, healthy concepts in the fast food sector
were to produce new knowledge on the personal, socio-economic and structural
determinants influencing young people’s fast food practices and preferences. New knowledge was gathered through overviews in four Nordic countries and qualitative fieldwork in 2 nordic countries. in
addition, young groups of persons behaviors in the direction
of products on the current tightly food market were made
observation of and gave sense of words into tending to
new ideas of a quality common to a
group through the testing of a got
well list. Attention was undergone punishment
for to putting about of results as an integral part of the undertaking. like barriers for healthy taking
food were let be seen by the makes observations
about: only few healthy selections were discovered, healthy selections we are too high
in price for young persons in general, some good quality was discovered in great
town insides, but hardly any in the edges. suggestions forhow to increase the using
up of healthy tightly foods covered, that it should be made the quality
example and not something special you have to request for. In
addition, healthy tightly food should taste good and be not
over-priced priced. In particular, young peoplehoped for tightly food with less fat or that is less processed, with more fruit, plants
used for food and wholegrain

(2010), Customers ultimate satisfaction may have
significant affect of atmosphere. Physical surroundings are helpful to create
image in the mind of customer and to influence their behavior. Physical
atmosphere of the restaurants have the significant impacts on the customers
satisfaction. Lightning, furnishing, sent, music and different other atmospheric
factors among them influence on customer satisfaction.


Zyl et al (2010), A In
the current study, the top five fast foods consumed by the participants, in
descending order, were burgers, pizza, fried chicken, fries and grilled
chicken. These findings coincide with findings globally, with the exception of
fried chicken, which has been shown to be a popular item of choice in the South
African population. The most popular food items consumed by adolescents and
young adults in New Delhi were pizza, burgers, ice cream, French fries and
sandwiches. There were similar findings in an American study, with Mexican food
also being a popular choice. The finding that fries (potato chips) were not
often chosen by individuals in the current study may be due to the participants
in this group not viewing fries as a separate entity when buying fast foods.
Fast food items like burgers or fried chicken are often served as part of a
value meal or a so-called ‘combo’ meal, and therefore the participants might
not have selected it as a separate option.


Cabral (2010), this study
assisted not only the technological world but also the psychological world. The
younger generations are changing how society communicates on a variety of
levels. Assessing addictions that are not necessarily common knowledge develops
a basis for the future. The brains of the younger generations are growing and
developing differently from those above them, and because of this more research
should be conducted on how specific aspects of the technological world will
continue to alter human development. The researcher hopes that this study will
lead more people to study and assess the power of social media and its ability
to change the world in various ways.


Singh (2007), Results indicate that the young Indian
consumer has passion for visiting fast food outlets for fun and change but home
food is their first choice. They feel homemade food is much better than food
served at fast food outlets. They have the highest value for taste and quality
(nutritional values) followed by ambience and hygiene. Three dimensions
(service and delivery dimension, product dimension, and quality dimension) of
fast food outlets’ attributes are identified based on factor analysis results.
The two fast food outlets’ rating differs significantly on the seven
attributes. McDonald’s scores are higher on all attributes except “variety”.
Further, consumers feel that fast food outlets must provide additional
information on nutritional values and hygiene conditions inside kitchen.


et al (2007), the
final barrier to healthy eating discerned in the data concerns how young people
actually understand the concept of ‘healthy eating’ itself and can be seen to
follow from the preceding themes. Healthy eating was mainly mentioned within
the context of sensible weight control and was predominantly viewed as a
quick-?x solution to the problem of obesity, rather than a long term health
strategy. While adolescents were aware of the long-term consequences of
obesity, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, these consequences were
linked to pathological obesity itself rather than unhealthy eating behavior.


Rachagan (2004), one
of most effective strategies is to offer free toys with its children’s meals. McDonald’s has been surprisingly
successful at this despite being heavily criticized for homogenizing tastes
across the world. Usually in Asia about a third of the menu is made up of
dishes you won’t find anywhere else like the Prosperity Burger in Malaysia during Chinese New Year or Pizza McPuffs in India.


(2000), the feeling of pleasure and expectation
fulfillment is known as Satisfaction. If the product will not satisfied
customer feelings they will be dissatisfied, and if product satisfied them
after the use customer will be satisfied and become loyal to that product or
brand. In other words customer satisfaction is goods or services which fulfill
the customer expectation in terms of quality and service for which he paid. If
Customer satisfaction develops they will become loyal to that product or brand
and their loyalty will be good for the company in sense as a Profit. Customer
satisfaction is the part of marketing and play important role in the market. In
any organization satisfaction of customer is more important, because if your
customer is satisfied with your services or products, your position will be
good in the market.



To learn consumer preference and
perception about restaurant services.

To know the awareness of peoples about
restaurant services in Ludhiana.

To know the trend about eating at
restaurants among peoples.

To analyze various factors affecting the
behavior of the customers towards positive and negative words of mouth.

To compare the perception of the
consumers for the same brand


Research Methodology


Every project work is based on certain methodology, which is a way to
systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very
important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through
observation, data collection and data analysis.

to Clifford Woody,

“Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems,
collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching
to conclusions.”

Research Design:


A research design is a framework or blueprint for
conducting the marketing research project. It specifies the details of the
procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or
solve marketing research problem.


Descriptive research
includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. Descriptive
research helps in knowing about Satisfaction of Consumers towards Fast-food

Sources of Data:


facts, figures, other relevant material of past and present and surveying are
the basis for study and analysis. Without an analysis of factual data no
specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based
on imagination or guesses cannot provide correct answer to research questions.
The relevance adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the
findings of a study. For the purpose of the present study, data from two
sources has been collected, namely primary data and secondary data.


Primary Data:

data is source from which the researcher collects the data. It is a firsthand
data, which is used directly for the analysis purposes. Primary data always
gives the researcher a fairer picture. In the present study primary data has
been collected using questionnaires. For the purpose of collecting the same,
263 respondents have been selected. In this study, primary data plays a vital
role for analysis, interpretation, conclusion and suggestions.

Secondary Data:

data is data which is collected and compiled for other purposes. Secondary data
also plays a key factor in providing more information which will influence the
analysis. Few of the main sources of secondary data include newspapers,
business journals, magazines, internet and company reports, etc.


These types of questions do not allow the respondent to give answers freely. If
question is closed ended then it is in the form of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’

These types of questions allow the respondent to give answers freely. If
question is open ended then, likert
scale (five point scale) representing strongly disagree, disagree, neutral,
agree and strongly agree is there.

Analysis Technique

  Analysis of data is done through quantitative
method that is numerical figure.


Tools Used

Percentage Method:
Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio in making comparison between two
or more data and to describe relationships.

Number of Respondents

of Respondents =    
——————————— X 100      

Total Respondents      


The main statistical tools used for analyses of data in this project are:



aggregate of all the units pertaining to a study is called the population.
Population is the largest group to be studied. It’s the total collection of
elements about which we wish to make inferences. The populations for this
research are the people residing in Ludhiana City and visit fast food chain.

part of the population is known as sample. The process of drawing a sample from
a large population is called sampling. In this research convenient sampling
technique is used to draw sample from population.

Sample Size:

sample size for the survey is 100.

Sample Unit:

of the units into which an aggregate is divided or regarded as divided for the
purpose of sampling, each unit being regarded as individual and indivisible when
the selection is made. The definition of unit may be made on some natural basis
for example households, persons, units of product and etc. Hence, in the study
the sample unit is ‘Respondent from Ludhiana who is consumer of any fast-food


Limitations of the Study:

limitations of the study are as follows:

Many consumers do not give the
exact picture of their opinion.

The time period for conducting
the survey is inadequate as the sample size covers Ludhiana city.

The opinion of the
consumer depends on the geographical location of the chains this may
include the service of the provider.
Since most of the
consumers are teenagers it fails to give a general view of other age


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