Reviewof Related Literature Presentedin this section are factual concepts of authorities on significantlyrelated topics. This is to establish clear framework of the conceptsand principles of the variables under study. RomanticEngagement Ina study by Chapmanon 2010, it was stated that romantic engagement is a relative term,but is generally accepted as a definition that discern moments andsituations within intimate and romantic relationships to anindividual as contributing to a significant relationship connection.Also, the term romantic engagement is referred to as the addition ofdrama to relationships of close, deep and strong love. Inaddition, adolescence scholar Collins (2003) made a compelling casethatadolescent romantic relationships represent an important context ofhuman development, in particular by emphasizing that theserelationships likely integrate the functions of, and are in partorganized by, prior and contemporaneous experiences with parents andpeers. Aseparate research indicates that negative emotionality (e.g., anger,ambivalence) in parent–adolescent dyads is predictive of poorquality interactions with romantic partners in late adolescence (Kimand Capaldi 2004).
Thus, there is some evidence that individuals withmore supportive experiences with parents also tend to have higherquality romantic relationships in adolescence. Furthermore,Johnson, together with his colleagues, showed in their study on 2005that researchon couples’ interactions has tended to show benefits of positiveaffective and behavioral patterns and a destructive impact of theirnegative counterparts, yet the meaning and impact of a particularemotional/ behavioral display may vary depending on the couple’sdevelopmental stage, as well as factors such as partner and conflictstructure. Romanticrelationships offer teens wonderful opportunities to pursue somepositive developmental tasks.
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Teens are gaining more autonomy fromtheir parents. They’re turning to peers—including romanticpartners—for support, information and social engagement. Earlyexperiences of infatuation and love provide chances to learn whatromantic relationships are all about. The relationships themselvescan be immensely rewarding. (Ha, 2016) Trust.
Asstated by Bamberger (2010), trust normally refer to a situation whichhas accompanying aspects: one party (trustor) is eager to depend onthe movements of another party (trustee); the circumstances will beguided of the future. In addition, those considered as a trustor(voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control to those who performmovements to the trustee. As consequence, those trustors are in doubtof the result of the other’s movements; they can only develop andevaluate expectations. Trustis viewed in various ways, but most prominently divided intodifferent categories of general trust (anyone) or interpersonal trust(close relationships). According to Couch, Adams, and Jones (1996)trust is primarily looked at as trust towards people in everydaysituations, and trust involved with intentional relationships.Trusting people in general is perceived by past experiences withpeople in certain groups or a specific individual. Testsof the incorporated model about human trust in machines suggested byMuir (1994) demonstrated that models of interpersonal trust catchessential parts of the nature and flow of claiming human-machinetrust. Trust might have been fundamentally decreased at whatever signfrom claiming incompetence in the automation, besides the one whichneeded no impact in the general framework performance.
Operators’trust changed a bit with experience, with a couple outstandingexceptions. Doubt on trusting clinched alongside another function ofthe same component, but did not generalize to another independentautomatic component in the same system, or to other systems. Therewas a highly positive correspondence the middle of operators’ trustand utilization of the automation; operators utilized mechanizationthey trusted while they reject mechanization they distrust,preferring will do the control undertaking manually. There might havebeen an opposite association between trust and screening of themechanization. These outcomes recommend that operators’ subjectiveappraisals about trust and the properties of the mechanization whichfigure out their trust might be a chance to be used to foresee thechanging allotment from claiming works over robotized or automatedsystems.
Inan online article from Harvard University, Hurley (2006) stated thattrustis a measure of the quality of a relationship—between two people,between groups of people, or between a person and an organization.There is already no need for a call of judgment when you already knowwhat to expect, especially on predictable cases where the question oftrust doesn’t arise. The conflict or confusion between certainaspects such as outsourcing, mergers, downsizing, and changingbusiness models produces a training ground for distrust. Sensitivity.Anadolescent’s sensitivity starts at his/ her fear of being rejected.
Rejection sensitivity, as stated by Mellin (2008), is associated withdepressive symptoms for adolescents and young adults. Thesedepressive symptoms include isolation, having a hard time to sleep,and in the worst case scenario, committing suicide. Rejectionsensitivity is also associated with self-silencing behaviors, wherebyindividuals withhold expressing negative feelings and/or thoughts totheir romantic partners, for fear that such expressions might lead tothe end of their relationship. Additionally, rejection sensitivity isrelated to dyadic interactions and romantic relationship health. Forexample, rejection sensitivity is associated with cyclical,aggressive behaviors between romantic partners, which is damaging toboth physical and psychological health (Galliher & Bentley,2010).
Akey function of romantic relationships is to make people feelaccepted and loved, thus promoting well-being. Yet, manyrelationships do not serve this function. Sensitivity to possiblerejection, as stated by Gunnar (2009), becomes particularly salientduring adolescence and rejection during this time predicts mentalhealth problems across the lifespan. Responsiveness.According to Owens & Batchelor (1996), responsiveness in thecontext of a system can be defined as the outcome that can beachieved when institutions and institutional relationships aredesigned in such a way that they are cognizant and respondappropriately to the universally legitimate expectations ofindividuals.
Basedfrom the Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1986), the termresponsive was being defined as a thing that is quick to respond orreact correctly or even sympathetically. Synonyms of this terminclude the words sentient, answering, possible, respondent, andreactive (The New Roget’s Thesaurus, 1964). Onthe other hand, responsive means liable to be called on to answer,liable to be called to account as the primary cause, able to answerfor one’s conduct and obligations; trustworthy, able to choose foroneself between right and wrong (Websters, 1986). Synonyms areanswerable, accountable, dependable, reliable, stable (Roget, 1964). Furthermore,Responsibility must begin with attention. To act responsibly we mustbe conscious to know what’s calling us to respond (Bellah etaL, 1991,p.
283) Commitment.Thisterm, as interpreted by Herraiz in 2016, refersto a person’s willingness to give time and energy to something theybelieve in, or a firm decision, a promise, to do something. Maxwell(1999) added that it is commitment that gets the job done. Thisintense dedication is more powerful than our best intentions,willpower, or circumstances. Without commitment, influence isminimal; barriers are unreachable; and passion, impact, andopportunities may be lost.
Moreover,Several authors identify commitment as an important component ofsuccessful market relationships because it gives rise to co-operativebehaviors (Dwyer, Schurr and Oh 1987; Morgan and Hunt 1994; Garbarinoand Johnson 1999). A relationship that is characterized bycooperation between two parties is more likely to be long-term,participative and focused on achieving service quality than one thatis not. Inbusiness to business relationships, such as those between a serviceprovider and a client, commitment is evident by investment decisionsthat seek to establish and maintain long term, mutually beneficialrelationships (Beaton and Beaton 1995). Equityand mutuality. Accordingto Daniel A. (2016), equity is a major issue which confronts us inpublic education.
We must develop thought leaders in education whorepresent and speak for the vast number of children in the world whoare not having the quality education they are entitled to. Strivingfor Equity canserve as a resource which has no value for superintendents andleaders from other school systems. Furthermore,Equity theory (Adams, 1963, 1965) draws from exchange, dissonance,and social comparison theories in making predictions about howindividuals manage their relationships with others. Consequently,Richard C.
(1967) stated that equity theory proposes individuals whoperceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded willexperience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts torestore equity. Lastly,Judith (1986) this paper explores relationships characterized bymutual intersubjectivity, in which individuals relate to one anotherbased on an interest in each other as whole, complex people. AcademicPerformance Student’sacademic execution occupies a very important place in pedagogy aswell as in the acquisition process. It is considered as a keycriterion to judge one’s total potency and capacity (Nuthana &Yenagi, 2009) which are frequently measured by the examinationresults. It is used to walk judgment on the quality of educationoffered by academic innovation . In fact, it is still the mosttopical debate in higher learning institutions that caused greatconcern to educator and researchers due to the alarming examinationperformance of scholarly person. Accordingto two separate studies by Elliot (2007) and Johnson (2003), theimportance regarding academic achievement is hardly ever questionedand reaching unanimity concerning its measurement has been elusive.
The measurement about student’s academic performance continues tostay a controversial topic among policymakers, measurements experts,yet educators researchers have used a variety of ways to measureacademic achievement such as report card grades, norm point average,measured check scores, teacher ratings, others cognitional take alook at scores, standard retention, yet dropout rates (Burns , 2009). However, for the purposes of this study, studentacademic performance is defined by the degree to which a student isable to accomplish a given class work in the school setting. Inhis widely cited paper, Romer (1993), which is one of the first fewauthors to explore the relationship between student attendance andexam performance, stated that a number of factors have contributed todeclining class attendances around the world in the last 15 years.The major reasons given by students for non-attendance includeassessment pressures, poor delivery of lectures, timing of lecturesand work commitments (Newman-Ford, Lloyd & Thomas, 2009).
Ina separate study, Kochhar (2000) says proper guidance is necessary tohelp the students with problems like lack of correlation betweentalent and achievement , faulty study practice imperfect methods oflearning. Researchers have shown that the performance of the studentsare dependent upon several aspects like learning facilities, age andgender differences. The most significant factor with the positiveoutcome on the performance of the students is competence of studentsin English. Students having good communication skills it expands thestudents performance (Abdullah, 2011).
Waltersand Soyibo (1998) further elaborated that student performance is verymuch dependent on SEB (socio economic back ground)as per theirstatement, “High school students’ level of performance is withstatistically significant differences, linked to their gender, gradelevel, school location, school type, student type and socio-economicbackground. On-timegrade progression.Accordingto Levin and Tsang (1987) address this problem by developing atheoretical model of the student time allocation problem using aneducational production function that is expanded by variablesrepresenting student effort and time. It is assumed that the studenthas resources in terms of both time and effort at his personaldisposal.
They can combine these resources to produce activitiesefficiently so as to maximize their utility. Using an example withtwo activities, namely learning activity in school and out-of-schoolactivity, they suggest that an increase in instructional time leadsto a decrease in effort per unit of time and therefore the net effecton educational performance will be small. They conclude that amechanical increase in instructional time does not automatically leadto an increase in student achievement.Moreover,Tureman and Hartley (1996) cited that time management is positivelyrelated to academic performance. The improper allocation of time, nosetting goals and priority, spending more time with friends or lastminutes preparation for examination, are some of the examples forpoor time management behavior which have been commonly discussed as aprime source of weak academic performance.Eversince the 1920s, children’s temporal concepts were being put as asubject for researchers and coming up with a conclusion that theconcept of time is complicated and difficult to teach children(Fraisse 1984 et al.
1999; Piaget 1969; Zakay 1989). This literatureabout research aims to show a theoretical framework to guideresearches to be conducted in the future about time-related teachingin grade school. After preparatory considerations about the potentialof instructional interventions in this context, this reviewcritically checks the position of conceptions which are time relatedwithin primary school curricula and explores which factors show aninfluence on time’s concept.BothHair (2006) and Li-Grining (2010)found out in their studies that aperson’s participation in school-readiness screenings and preschoolprogramming has been importantly related to future school success.Also, it was found out that the following predictors were also knownas the ones responsible in contributing to children’s readiness forschool: physical health, approaches to learning, social-emotionaldevelopment, language, and cognitive development.Ina study related to the latter one, Guthrie and his colleagues haveconfirmed on 2006 that a high number of stimulating tasks increasedstudent motivation and that motivation provides a good effect on astudent’s comprehension in reading.
SchoolAttendance.AccordingtoGottfried(2009) found that distinguishing between authorized or unauthorizedabsences is important for isolating the impact of low attendance. Ahigher proportion of authorized absences to total absences is linkedto a positive relationship between reading and math test scores.
Conversely, students with a higher proportion of unauthorizedabsences display lower achievement.Regardingthe empirical evidence on student time use, several studies deal withthe effect of course attendance on academic achievement. To a greatextent, these studies are based on samples of students in specificcourses (mostly economics courses). The overall finding is thatattendance positively affects academic performance (e.g. Schmidt,1983; Park and Kerr, 1990; Romer, 1993; Durden and Ellis, 1995;Devadoss and Foltz, 1996; Chan, Shum, and Wright, 1997; Bauer andZimmermann, 1998). Determinants of lecture attendance and selfstudyare analyzed by Ryan, Delaney, and Harmon (2010).
Estimating separateregressions for both types of time use, they find that non-cognitiveabilities such as future-orientation and conscientiousness areimportant for the amount of time students spent on both attendinglectures and self-study.Accordingto Durden and Ellis (1995) investigated the link between overallcourse grade and self-reported attendance levels in a sample of 346principles of economics students over three semesters. Their results,based on OLS controlling for ability and motivational factors (GPA,college-entrance exam scores, having had a course in calculus)indicate that attendance matters for academic performance. Inparticular, whereas low levels of absenteeism have little effect onthe eventual outcome, excessive absenteeism has a large andsignificant effect.Williams(2000) and Wadesango (2011), in a separate study, states that,students who have problems in their absences generally suffer bothacademically and socially. Absenteeism has long term effects inacademic and social performances; students who are often absent areat higher risk of having a poor performance, and repetition than thestudents who attend school everyday.
Repetition may lead to a loss ofconfidence and low self esteem for students due to the social stigmaassociated with failure.Onanother study conducted by Chang & Romero in 2008, schoolattendance adversely affects the other students in the class becauseit causes the teacher to re-teach subjects. Research has shown manytimes that absenteeism does affect student achievement. EnglishLanguage Proficiency.Accordingto Robelle and Ronald (2016), educators agree that proficiency in theEnglish language is the basis for success in academic pursuits.
Reading, writing, and working with numbers are tasks that are basedon language skills describes this as the interplay between everydaylanguage skills and more advanced communication skills. Toexplain further, Grimm (2008) conducted a study that examined therelationship between early reading skills and growth in math skills.His study examined third grade students and found that students whohad a higher level of reading comprehension tended to learn problemsolving and data interpretation skills faster than those with weakerreading comprehension. Astudy with a focus on reading comprehension explicitly related tomath was conducted in Turkey by Duru and Koklu (2011). The authorslooked at middle school students’ ability to read a mathematicaltext and convert it into an algebraic equation and vice-versa. Thedata from the study indicated that students had low readingcomprehension which prevented them from comprehending themathematical texts and algebraic equations representing those texts. Inaddition, Wanzek and Cavanaugh (2010) stated that the shift fromintervention being offered by a paraprofessional to a readingintervention teacher may be because students’ reading scores at thesecond-grade and third-grade levels consistently grow more rapidlythan their peers when they are engaged in high-level thinking aboutthe texts that they read. Furthermore,a study conducted by Haworth, et.
al. (2009) examined genetics andlearning disabilities. They found genetic correlations betweenreading and mathematics disabilities of .61 and between mathematicsand language of .
67. The results indicate a connection betweenreading and mathematics in genes. Schoolconnectedness.
According to a study by Konishi, C., Hymel, S., Zumbo, B., & Li,Z. in 2010, only a few empirical studies closely examined the linkbetween students’ feelings of safety and academic achievementscores. Contributing to the field, Konishi, Hymel, Zumbo and Liexamined how academic performance is affected both by studentrelationships with peers and with teachers too. Studies conductedbefore have explored certain parts of school connectedness, but didnot provide a detailed and conclusive information on the influence ofschool connectedness on the standard measures of academicachievement. Furthermore, Lemberger and Clemens implemented the Student Success Skills (SSS)program in 2012 as an intervention for the African-Americanelementary school students located in the inner part of the city.
These students may experience racial discrimination which can beabsorbed by them and may lead to a “disidentification” withschool and academic success. As defined by a series of philosophicprecepts, the SSS Program can be categorized into two, namely, skillsthat support feelings of school connectedness and how the studentregulates learning and social behaviors in school and beyond, asstated by Villares and his co-researchers in 2011. Inaddition, Frydenberg et al.
(2009) investigated two factorsassociated with adaptation in early adolescence and their relation toschool connectedness. Coping, which is the first factor, is necessaryfor people to deal with stress and problems. Students from middleschool are more likely to encounter stressors relating to family,school, and peers in their lives and it was also reported that whenan adolescent is faced with a stressful situation which ischangeable, various problem solving strategies are more likely to beused. If the situation is attributed as something that cannot bechanged, emotion-related strategies are more likely to be used; andthese include worrying or self-blaming of the individual. Pears,Kim, Fisher, and Yoerger (2013) set out to discover the impact schoolconnectedness has on elementary-aged children in foster care with ahistory of maltreatment and further found out that these children areat an increased risk for academic failure, placement in specialeducation services, and dropout on school. Therefore, schoolconnectedness was hypotesized as something that would mediate theoutcomes in late primary level.
Furthermore,the study conducted by McNeely, Nonnemaker, and Blum (2002) notedstudents who feel connected to school report higher levels ofemotional well-being. In 2002, Anderman concluded that higherindividual levels of connectedness were related to increase ofhappiness or positive energy and lower levels of depression orsadness. In line with this, researchers have discovered a positiverelationship between school connectedness and emotional well-being. Expectationof academic success.Accordingto Alexander etal. (1994),a parents’ estimation of what mark their child is going to get inmath and reading is high.
Since math and reading are much essentialas compared to the other fields of learning, a learning emphasis mustbe applied to these. Balboniand Pedrabissi (1998)also added that parents’expectations for their child’s learning performance are mostlyexcellent. Therole of parental expectations in affecting children’s academicprogress has received substantial attention from psychologists andsociologists over the past half century. In general, parentalexpectations have been found to play a critical role in children’sacademic success. Students whose parents hold high expectationsreceive higher grades, achieve higher scores on standardized tests,and persist longer in school than do those whose parents holdrelatively low expectations(Davis-Kean2005;Pearce 2006;Vartanian etal.2007). Additionally,two meta-analyses have found that parental expectations are thestrongest family-level predictor of student achievement outcomes,exceeding the variance accounted for by other parental beliefs andbehaviors by a substantial margin (Jeynes, 2005).