Semiotics involves many different techniques, where
consumers can identify a brand due to the sign, symbol, colour etc. It is clear
enough that much of marketing communications consists of signs which we
(consumers) interpret from advertising, packaging, or even the setup of the
store or its location. “Semiotic is concerned with exploring the links between
signs and symbols”.

Consumer’ seem use shortcuts to trigger a certain
experience, culture, social preferences etc. Shortcuts are simplified as they
trigger a sign which brings a consumer’s interpretation. Consumers own
experience could possibly relate to a certain colour, job, sign etc., which is
triggered when seen. When we think about a specific season, for example winter,
it is automatically linked to the colour brown due to leaves and the colour
itself being very simple (Persuasive Signs 2017).

Within the project research, semiotics links to certain
bases of advertising effects impacted on the consumer. When consumers purchase
a project, majority of consumers seem to become attracted to the product
because of its advertising as well as reviews. Within my collected research 10
out of 18 participants stated that social media does influence their purchasing
decisions, which helps to answer one part of the project question “Does
advertising effect consumer’s purchasing decisions”? Prior to the topic
question, consumer purchasing decisions are based on their own opinions of the
brand and how they perceive it towards competitors, which expands on to loyalty
towards certain brands. Semiotic will allow consumers to remember certain
brands, or even certain things they like about the brand as well as its
location, which is consumer’s personal perception to how that brand has
specialised itself to the consumer for remembrance as well as word of mouth.

interactive communication model

The interactive communication model which is also known
as the convergence model deals with the exchange of ideas and message which
take place both ways from the sender to the receiver, vice versa. The
communication model is understood to take place between two human beings, as
well as machines (Rodgers,
S. and Thorson, E. The Interactive Advertising Model 2013). The
model itself includes components transferring such as:

Encoder-Source-Decoder: The person who the
message has originally come from is the source, which is known as the encoder. The
second source is known as the encoder as well as the decoder. The source will
act as encoder whilst sending the message and as a decoder whilst receiving a
message back. Source two is then known as the decoder, as they receive the
message as well as originate another message. 
Message: Throughout the communication with
the encoder and the decoder, the information throughout is the message used for
interaction. Once the message is received to the decoder,
another message is sent back which is known as feedback from the original
message.Field of experience: The field of experience
is the experience as well as the knowledge possessed, which will affect the
message formation and interpretation. This will usually effect the decoder, as
they are receiving the message.

The interactive communication model affects consumers
purchasing behaviour deeply through the messages they received, via
advertisement as well as social media. When we look at messages, this could
possibly be linked to hidden messages within advertisement (The Models of
Communication 2017).


Public relations are a theory which is used to predict
the effects of processes. The importance of public relations theory is to give an
understanding to public relation practitioners of how public relations works.
For example, consumers, will need knowledge of different jeans available, as
well as the best suitable pair for them before making their purchase decisions.
Public relations are the bet theory to guide consumers of a communication plan,
tactic, strategies, or programs (Public Relations Theories 2017).

There are four public relations models’ by Grunig’s and
Hunt are:

agent or publicity model- This is a form of one way communication. The press
agent model uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audiences to behave
as the organisation desires.   Public
Information model- The public information model uses press releases as well as
other one way communication techniques to distribute the organisational
information. Two-way
asymmetrical model- The two-way asymmetrical model refers to two-way communication
uses persuasion as well as manipulation for the audience to be influenced. This
is for the audience to behave as the organisation desires. Two-way
communication however will not use any type of research to understand how
stakeholders feel about the company. Two-way
symmetrical model- This model uses communication to negotiate with the
consumer, resolve conflict and promote mutual understanding as well as
respecting the organisation and its stakeholders.

There are of course similarities as well as differences
between the four models by Grunig’s and Hunt. All four models use different
methods to intrigue their customer and communicate with them. This will either
be one way communication (Press agent or publicity model and Public information
model), or two-way communication (Two way asymmetrical and two-way symmetrical

Forms of communication are dynamic for organisations to
maintain a relationship with its consumers as well as keeping a level of interaction
where organisations can easily contact the specified company. Organisations
such as Forever 21, Levi’s, New look etc, will maintain a relationship with
consumers through emails and text messages. As well as this they will provide
discount codes/ vouchers to new or existing consumers, which will maintain the
bond between the company and the consumer (Public Relations or Advertising 2017).

excellence theory

The excellence theory has been explained as the value of
public relations to companies based purely on social responsibly of managerial
decisions as well as its quality of stakeholder relationships. Relation to the
theory, organisations will only become effective by solving problems as well as
satisfying the goals of its stakeholders. For organisations to behave within a
certain manner which is acceptable to society, they must identify the public
who are affected by potential organisational decisions, as well as making
decisions which are suitable for their needs. Organisations will then
communicate symmetrically with the public, taking in to account both interest
of the public and the organisation. Good relationships between the public and
its stakeholder’s is seen to be of value as this reduced the cost of
litigation, regulation, legislation and negative publicity.

The research question links the excellence theory to both
the industry as well as its consumers. It is vital for a brand to remain a
relationship with its consumer. The stronger the bond, the stronger chances of
them remaining loyal to the brand. If consumers feel they are treated as a
unique customer, they are most likely to recommend the certain brand to
potential customers (family/friends). The excellence theory helps organisations
to take consumer thoughts in to account whilst making certain decisions, to be
able to solve consumer quarrels.

different types of social media

Relationship Networks- Social media is best known for all
its social network sites used by many different consumers around the globe.
Relationship networks are not the oldest types of social media; however, they
are the most defining. The network sites were firstly used as public
mini-sites, which was then used as profiles asking for all consumer information
(8 Types of
Social Media and How Each Can Benefit Your Business 2017).

Relationship networks enable consumers to keep all
communication within one place, which can easily be accessed further on. This
can be varied from professional relationships on a site such as LinkedIn, which
helps to find a new career or connect with professionals in a specific field.
Sites such as Facebook however, could be used to find singles users within a
person’s own area. As well as consumers, brands can use network sites to
connect with consumers on a personal level, most organisations now have a
Facebook page, Twitter account and Instagram account to reach out to their
audience. Consumers also have a place to contact the organisation with queries.
Brands such as Levi’s and New look do have a Facebook, Twitter page as well as
Instagram where they promote new products as well as reach put to their desired

Media sharing Networks- Media sharing networks is
described as the primary type of media. The main purpose of Facebook and
Twitter is its sharing images and videos; however, the rest contains mainly
contents of texts. Sites such as Instagram and Flickr, focus purely on imagery.
Users will go through the processing of unloading, editing as well as choosing
a caution before uploading.

Online Reviews- Reviews are vital when finding a place to
visit, or somewhere to dine. As well as this when purchasing a product consumers
always seem to check reviews. Most consumers consult the internet along with
friends for a review on any product.

Discussion Forums- Although discussion forums is one of
the oldest types of social media, they are still used to discuss as well as
collect research. Users can take part within a discussion form on social
network platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This can be done using their
real name or through an anonymous post. However, it Is preferred a brand should
not do that, as the brands public image as well as its reputation is at stake.
If a brand wishes to join a discussion, it should be aware to users (consumers)
of what brand has joined, as well as that the brand which has joined could
possibly promote the business if relatable to the discussion content.

Social publishing platforms- Social media platforms allow
long and short term written content which is shared with other users who are
registered to the site. When blogging, majority of bloggers share their content
on Tumblr as well as Facebook and Twitter. Users on these platform sites are
highly influenced by a popular blogger’s thoughts. When we think of fashion
bloggers, consumers are influenced within their purchasing decisions through
what a blogger has recommended. However, this can sometimes be a promotion
technique for the brand.

sites- Bookmarking sites are used to store links which user’s may want to share
or access later. Social media sites such as StumbUpon, Pinterest, and Flipboard
are where users collect content from the internet and save it upon those
platforms. They can be private or public, as well as shared with other users.
Bookmarking sites will show suggestable content relating to cont


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