Serum protein electrophoresis is used to measure the level of abnormal protein in the blood. SPEP is a method, which identifies monoclonal bands.
Serums are used by clinicians to provide a diagnosis for patients with diseases. Diseases such as myeloma, associated B cell disease and immunodeficiency and monoclonal gammopathy (O’Connell TX1, Horita TJ, Kasravi B, 2005).Plasma is produced in the bone marrow (Ottawa, 2015). The plasma contains 91% water, 7% blood proteins such as fibrinogen, globulin and 3% nutrients, hormones and electrolytes. Unlike Plasma, the serum does not contain any fibrinogens or clotting factors. The serum holds proteins, antibodies, antigens, hormones and unsafe substances such as drugs and microbes, therefore blood was centrifuged to remove proteins that clot blood.
Each serum protein has different charges and pH. If there are no charges molecules cannot interact. The charges move around in the liquid. shows the highest peak and attracts positive electrodes whereas y-globulins attract negative electrodes as they are closer to the cathode (Busher JTP, 1990). The concentration of protein in the serum varies under different pathologic conditions.
The gel was exposed to an electrical current which splits the serum protein into components, these are; serum albumin, alpha-1,2 globulins, beta and y-globulins. The humoral immune response starts when antibodies bind to an antigen to signal helper T cells (Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et, 2001). Proteins are large molecules with protein bonds that are covalently bonded amino acids with hydrogen bonds. (Helena laboratories,2007).
Albumin is produced in the liver. They bind to water, calcium, potassium, fatty acids, hormones, and bilirubin whilst maintaining osmotic pressure in the blood (Busher JTP, 1990). Alpha 1&2 globulins are globular proteins. They inhibit only certain protease activities. Beta globulins are heavier than alpha globulins. Properdin is a beta globulin that acts as a positive regulator in the blood serum in complex animals. Y-globulin is lighter than ?- and ?-globulins.
Y-globulin has a vital role in the immune system because they are injected into the body to boost immunity. Y-globulins protein is a part of immunoglobulin with antibodies such as IgG and IgM making up 75% of the serum antibodies in the body. The objectives are to perform electrophoresis successfully using samples dilutions and carry out a diagnostic testing using the gel. The aim was to find out what the test sample contains and understand what the gel is showing.