Sexual abuse also known as molestation is
usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is a universal
problem with grave life outcomes. The number of case reported in India was
found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. The child abuse case
in India is an unreported offence, which has now reached to an epidemic
proportion. Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious
violation of human beings and of the law, yet there is no developed mechanism
that ensure  that none of their youth
will be sexually abused, sadly it is a problem of great magnitude that affect
children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities and socioeconomic classes Child
abuse (CSA) actually is broken down into four categories: neglect, physical
abuse, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. While having different forms and level
of severity, it can be defined as the maltreatment of a child, usually the
first thing that comes to mind is physical harm, but the issue is actually much
more complex. Sexual abuse towards children is a stark reality world. It is a
multidimensional problem having social, medical and psychological implications.
These acts are performed mainly by trusted friends, family members, and people
with all sexual orientation. It includes many type of abusive acts towards
children such as sexual assault, attempted intercoarse, fondling of genitals
directly or through clothing, etc.because of increased rate of child sexual
abuse there is an increase in the prevalence of sexually transmitted disease (STD)
cases among children. Statistically, girls are more often the victim of sexual
abuse. However, it is observed that males do not report their case as often.
The gender gap may be caused by higher victimization of girls, lower
willingness of men to disclose abuse or both. The main reason of sexual abuse
is the misuse of the power of their position. For example- sexual harassment in
education. It might involve a student submitting to sexual advances of a person
in power in fear of being given a failing grade or fear of being punished.
Child sexual abuse(CSA) is a traumatic experience affecting the life of the
victim in long term measure as well as the life of their close one too. The
victim has to deal with this experience the rest of their lives. It isn’t
limited to sexual or physical contact there are examples of noncontact abuse
also such as displaying pornography, having sexualized conversation with the
child, watching a child undressed. The physical child abuse effects vary from
child to child, depending on the following factors: the severity of the
physical abuse, frequency of the physical abuse, age of the child when physical
abuse began ,child’s relationship with the abuser,  and child’s ability to cope up with this. The effect
of child sexual abuse is wide ranging and last for forever. Children who are
victim of sexual abuse often know the perpetrator in some way.  Some may be able to cope up with this but most
of the victims cannot cope up emotionally as well as mentally. Often due to
shame or guilt they will they keep the abuse to themselves and do not tell
anyone about the problems they are facing. The person going through all this
faces certain attached disorder, for instance, an aversion to touch and
physical attention, the child might flinch or even say “ouch “when touched and
perceived it as a threat, anger might be expressed directly, the child face
difficulty in showing affection and care towards strangers, the child might act
like he or she does not have a conscience and might fail to show guilt, regret,
depression, poor eating disorder. While some children may exhibit regressive
behavior such as bedwetting. The child may withdraw from school and social
activities and show problem in learning.  The term sexual abuse cannot be clearly
defined with ease. In fact, it is an umbrella term for any sort of situation,
whether or not it involves physical contact, in which a sexually immature child
is exposed to anything sexual in nature. Because no child is psychologically
mature enough for sexual stimulation, the complex feelings associated with it
are mentally and emotionally disfiguring. As we know the case of child abuse
there is a need to educate children about sex and taught themselves self-protection
skills. As Medical professionals have a key role in detecting child sexual abuse
(CSA), they are often the first point of contact with abused children and their
families. As a result of more rigorous research studies in this field our
understanding of the impact of childhood sexual abuse is becoming more nuanced
and a robust body of research evidence now clearly demonstrates the link
between child sexual abuse and a spectrum of adverse mental health. An
increased risk of revictimisation of survivors has also been demonstrated
consistently for both men and women survivors. More recent research has
revealed a link between child abuse and personality, psychotic disorder as well
as a heightened risk for suicide ideation and suicidal behavior. Future
research in this area needs to continue to tease out gender difference in
victim’s experiences of childhood sexual abuse. In order to prevent child abuse
the society must recognize the types of abuse, know the characteristic of
abusers, and realize the effect that abuse has not just on the child but on
family as well.  This understanding will
assist in the identification, treatment and prevention of child sexual abuse. Hence,
the problem of child sexual abuse needs to be addressed through less ambiguous
and stringent punishment.


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