Some empirical studiessuggest that student employment adversely a?ects academic performance(Callender, 2008; Di, 1996; Holloway, 2001; Warren, 2002). Astin (1993) foundevidence that full-time employment as well as o?-campus employment werenegatively correlated with a student’s GPA and completion of a degree.
These?ndings were later supported by Lundberg (2003). Wenz and Yu (2010) observed asigni?cant negative correlation between hours employed and GPA. Furthermore,their study also demonstrated that students employed primarily for ?nancialreasons tend to receive lower grades than students working to obtaincareer-speci?c skills. A study by Grant, Hawkins, Hawkins, and Smith (2005)observed that employed students did not demonstrate lower levels of academicperformance relative to unemployed students but instead experienced a higherrelative dropout rate as well as longer times needed for degree completion.Mounsey, Vandehey, and Diekho? (2013) found that employed students displayedhigher levels of anxiety relative to unemployed students in their study butfound no signi?cant di?erences in GPA s between these student groups. Cohen(2012) argued that students are relatively poor judges of their ownLogan et al.
251abilities and oftenminimize the impact of academic distractions such as employment. She explainsthat it is a lack of metacognitive insight that leads to overcon?dence in one’sabilities and inaccurate assessment of one’s academic performance. Cramer and Kulm(2006) observed a positive correlation between persistence toward a degree andstudent employment. Their study also observed that students employed on-campusdemonstrated higher levels of academic success, perhaps due to feeling moreconnected to campus faculty and peers. These ?ndings supported Astin (1984)where he introduced Involvement Theory, explaining that students employedon-campus (15 hours or less) are more likely to succeed in college due togreater inclusion in campus events.
On the other hand, o?-campus employmentpulls students away from campus events and isolates them from peers. Severalempirical studies support this ?nding by observing the hindrance of o?-campusworking hours on student performance (Furr & Elling, 2000; Lipka, 2007; Lundberg,2003). Astin explained that the key to student success is involvement thatleads to meaningful and educational interactions between students and faculty.