Sr. No. Problem Statement/scope of related study Electroanalytical technique applied Specific method used Targeted application Targeted analyte Method specification Research outputs Comments References 1 Potentiometry based urea biosensor utilizing chitosan membrane Potentiometry H3O+ electrode Fabrication of potentiometric urea biosensor Urea pH 7.

3, thickness of membrane is 0.2 mm. concentration range 0.1-6.0 ppm, detection limit is 0.073 ppm, accuracy of biosensor 94%-99%. h Fabrication of this biosensor is based on hydrolysis of urea by urease. These biosensors can be used for the measurement of urea in different samples.

1 2 Colorimetric and potentiometric biosensors based on enzymes; for detection of Pb(II) ions in milk Potentiometry ion selective electrode (ISE) To detect the Pb(II) ions in milk Milk   Lower limit of detection was 38.6µm.At 4°C,the stability of enzyme membranes was more than 60 days. The detection limit of 9.66µm was obsereved,as a response of ion selective electrode to the change of ammonium ion concentration as a result of inhibition of urease by Pb(II) ions. This biosensor can effectively be used for the detection of lead in other samples too. 2 3 Development of functionalized lnN quantum dots based potentiometric glucose biosensors.

Potentiometry Ag/AgCl electrode Development of potentiometric glucose biosensors. glucose Concentration ranges from(1×10-5M to  1×10-2 M). This is stable and reusable and shows very low response to common interferents like ascorbic acid and uric acid.     Developed biosensor had sensitivity slope of 80mV/decade and output response of 2s. Excellent sensitivity, high reusability and selectivity reveal that this biosensor can be effectively used for determination of glucose in clinical diagnoses. 3 4 Fabrication of composite pH sensor based potentiometric lactate biosensor.

potentiometry quinhydrone-graphite-PVC-NH2 composite Fabrication of potentiometric lactate biosensor. Lactate A linear response was observed in the concentration range of 5×10-5 to 1×10-1 mol/L with detection limit of 2×10-5 mol/L Fabricated biosensor was successfully used for accurate determination of lactate in food samples.Biosensor showed response time of 10s,had good stability and extended life time. Fabricated biosensor can be used for lactate determination in different food samples like buttermilk and pickle juice and satisfactory results can be obtained.   4 5 Development of Potentiometric biosensor based on polyaniline for the detection of pesticides. potentiometry Glassy carbon electrode modified with polyaniline. Pesticides Detection organophosphorus and carbamic pesticides Reversible pH response of 86 mV/pH unit was obtained. The limit of pesticide detection was found to be lower than that measured with other cholinesterase sensors.

The modification of transducer by polyaniline can be considered as promising way to the betterment of enzyme sensors’ analytical and operational characteristic. 5 6 Development of potentiometric sensor for the detection of pethidine hydrochloride in samples of ampoules and urine. potentiometry chemically modified carbon paste electrode based on pethidine phosphotungstate as ion pair complex. Detection of pethidine hydrochloride in ampoules and urine samples. Ampoules and Urine Electrode exhibited Nernstian response in concentration range of 2.1×10-6 to 1.0×10-2M with detection limit of 7.

3×10-7.And it is usable in pH range of 3.5-6.6. Value of dE/dt is 0.00071 V/°C indicating high thermal stability of sensor.

It is a useful analytical tool and an alternative for the detection of pethidine hydrochloride in different samples. 6 7 Potentiometric biosensors based on carbon nanotubes for determination of urea Potentiometry poly(vinyl chloride) based H+- or NH4+-selective membranes. Determination of Urea Urea To work with wide range of urea concentrations,at pH closer to 5,urease-NH4+  ISE must be used.For determination of low concentration and high sensitivity,working with buffer free solution,H+-I    SE should be used Carbon electrodes using carbon nanotubes as a transducer is a useful tool for urea determination. This is relatively fast and simple approach for the determination of urea. 7 8 development of potentiometric urea biosensor based on immobilized fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

Potentiometry Electrode having a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate)membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. development of potentiometric urea biosensor. Urea The pH and concentration of phodphate buffer to use in this biosensor was 7.0 and 0.5mM respectively. Fullerene was synthesized and used for the development of urea biosensor which was successfully applied for urea determination.The biosensor’s sensitivity was 59.67±0.

91 mV/decade that is close to theoretical value. The use of fullerene and acrylic membrane prevent the leaching of urease and sustain its activity due to which stability of urea biosensor is upto 140 days. 8 9 Potentiometric urea biosensor based on thiophene copolymer Potentiometry indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrodes. Development of Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Urea pH should be closer to 7.The range of linear response of biosensor was 2.

31×10-3?M to 8.28×10-5M. Thiophene copolymer was synthesized and used in development of urea potentiometric biosensor which can successfully be used for determination of urea.

This biosensor is a convenient approach for determination of urea in different industrial processes and also for monitoring patients with diabetes and kidney damage. 9 10 Monoenzymatic lipase potentiometric biosensor for the analysis of food on the basis of pH sensitive graphite epoxy composite as transducer Potentiometry graphite-epoxy electrode Food analysis by enzymatic potentiometric biosensors triglycerides in food samples work in pH range of 5.0-9.

0 and analytical sensitivity was observed in range from 0.08-0.48 mM. This sensor was successfully applied for the determination of triglycrides in complex food samples on the basis of a detection mechanism of pH changes by means of a composite graphite epoxy as a transducer. The method used for the analysis of triglyceride in food sample by Arabic gum emulsion is a useful alternative for determination of TG. 10  References:1 Ani Mulyasuryani*, Anna Roosdiana,and ArieSrihardyastutie ,THE POTENTIOMETRIC UREABIOSENSOR USING CHITOSAN MEMBRANE,Indo. J.

Chem., 2010, 10 (2),162 – 166.2 Hardeep Kaur, Sachin Kumar and NeelamVerma*,Enzyme-based Colorimetric and Potentiometric Biosensor for Detecting Pb(II) Ions in Milk, BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY,(2014),57,613-619.3 N. H.

Alvi,P. E. D. Soto Rodriguez, V. J.

Gomez,PraveenKumar, G. Amin, O. Nur, M. Willander,and R. N€otzel, Highly efficientpotentiometric glucose biosensor based on functionalized InN quantum dots, APPLIEDPHYSICS LETTERS 101,(2012),1-4.4 Hilmiye Deniz Ertugrul Uygun1, Nihat Tinkilic1, AzadeAttar2 and Ibrahim Isildak2, Development of Potentiometric Lactate BiosensorBased on Composite pH Sensor, Journal of New Materials for ElectrochemicalSystems,(2016),vol 19, 151-156.5 A.

N. Ivanov, G. A. Evtugyn, Lilia V. Lukachova, ElenaE. Karyakina, H.

C. Budnikov, S. G. Kiseleva, A. V. Orlov, G. P.

Karpacheva,and Arkady A. Karyakin, New Polyaniline-Based Potentiometric Biosensor forPesticides Detection, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL,2003,3,333-340.6 Hazem M. Abu-Shawish1, Nasser Abu Ghalwa2, Ghada I.Khraish1, Jehad Hammad3, A New Potentiometric Sensor for Determination ofPethidine Hydrochloride in Ampoules and Urine, American Journal of AnalyticalChemistry,2011,2, 56-65.

7 Ewa Jaworska, Krzysztof Maksymiuk and Agata Michalska,Carbon Nanotubes-Based Potentiometric Bio-Sensors for Determination of Urea,Chemosensors 2015, 3, 200-2108 Kasra Saeedfar, Lee Yook Heng, Tan Ling Ling and MajidRezayi, Potentiometric Urea Biosensor Based on an Immobilised  Fullerene-Urease Bio-Conjugate, Sensors,2013,13, 16851-16866.9 Cheng-Yuan (Kevin) Lai, Peter J. S.

Foot *, John W.Brown and Peter Spearman, A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a ThiopheneCopolymer, Biosensors 2017, 7,1-13.10 Juan Carlos Escamilla-Mejía, José Antonio Rodríguez,Giaan Arturo Álvarez-Romero, and Carlos Andrés Galán-Vidal, MonoenzymaticLipase Potentiometric Biosensor for the Food Analysis Based on a pH SensitiveGraphite-epoxy Composite as Transducer, J. Mex.

Chem. Soc. 2015, 59(1), 19-23.

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