Startof Islamic era A kind of government in theIslamic world at lasted for almost 13 century from the death of hazrat Muhammad(?)tothe over through of the last ottoman caliph Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâniin 1924. Through the one and half decease of century the word of caliph turnedbut has been used at the time curse in June 2014 by an aggressive groupconsidering themselves isls and also announcing the establishment of caliphateand they also proclaimed their leader Abu baker al Baghdadi. On the meanwhilethis call rejected by most Muslims around the world.In 622 hazrat Muhammad (?) lefthis homeland city mecca move toward to the medina with hissome best followers by order of Allah. When they reached medina people ofmedina call them (muhajroon) immigrants. The prophet (?) andthe immigrants given the shelter by the citizen of medina after this they(people of media) also known as supporter (al ansar). Hazrat Muhammad (?) laidthe foundation of Islamic government in medina.
After ten year in 632 he (?) diedafter a brief illness in medina. The prophet (?) leftbehind the young and vibrate Islamic government which uniting most of the tribeof the Arabian peninsula with medina its capital. It was censorious conditionbecause prophet had both spiritual and political authority and it was reallydifficult for anyone to unite those two qualities. But it was vital that Islam should continue togrow and that’s way a leader was needed. The People of medina and otherfollowers thought the close companion of the prophet (?) issuccessor would come from one of them. The supporters and theirtribe leaders felt that they were the people of city and greater in number and thatit was their right to take leadership after prophet (?).
The supporter gathered to decide which of themwould be the prophet successor because the holy prophet was last prophet andthere was to be no prophet after him. He was also leader of Muslims thereforenecessary that after him there should be someone who lead the Muslim governmentand also solving the Muslims affairs chosen from us because we gave them salterand property share when they were alone. Someone told hazrat Abu baker (R.
A) about themeeting then Abu baker (R.A) and Umar (R.A) reached at meeting place andinterrupted the deliberation. Hazrat Abu baker (R.
A) brought the delegationat home and asked it is the no matter of medina city it is the matter of wholeArab and whole world we first accept the Islam and we also left ours houses,parents, and tribe for the separation of Islam and Allah and he also askedsupporters about government and other Arab tribe who will not accept thegovernment of (Ansar) supporter and he also added that the scarification ofsupporter for the Islam will not forget and their value is high.then a supporter leader standand said Abu baker (R.A) is right but he also added that the maximum adjustmentthat they could make in favor of the emigrants was that they could have twoAmirs, one from the supporter (Ansars) and the other from the emigrants, hazratUmar (R.A) said that Islam give the teaching of unity for one Allah, oneProphet, and one Quran. It followed as a required result that theMuslim community should have one Amir.
If the plan of having two Amirs was onceaccepted, other people would later lay claim to the election of an Amir fromthem. Such multiple Amirat would lead to the losing the strength of the Islamicpolity after the long and hot debate one of leader of supporter arose and saidto the supporter you were the first helper of Islam and this time you are thefirst hurdle in Islamic solidity at this supporter fell in deep thought and theyseemed to hesitate to press their demand. Abu baker (R.A) take stage and asked to thedelegation will you accept the hazrat Umar (R.A) as a new leader for thegovernment then suddenly hazrat Umar (R.A) I don’t put myself ahead of Abubaker (R.A) and he said you are senior and also lead the prayers during theillness of prophet (?) and you have deserve thissuccession.
Then Abu baker (R.A) said so give me your hand and hazrat Umar(R.A) gave his hand for oath and other people also give the oath to hazrat Abubaker (R.A) in this way that problem came to end.Realmof caliphate The new time began a new title written inhistory the first caliph of Islam and successor of Muhammad (?) wasto be hazrat Abu baker (R.A). In the next the position of Abu baker (R.
A) wasconfirmed as caliph. He was very simple and very Islamic man. day after hebecoming the leader he took his fabrics and move towards to the market somesahabha asked him where are you going he replied I am going to the market fortrade they became very wonderful and asked why you are leader of whole Muslim worldwhich there is no need for work for a leader he replied how will I fed myfamily. He was modest and very spiritual man. Duringhis period many up and downs came which create the many problem for the newIslamic government like Musaylimah and 2nd issue is zakat when manyMuslims severed from the zakat.
On that time he fought against them duringthese wars many lives lost by Muslims and Muslims also lost 300 plus hufiz e Qur’an after the this heordered the Muslims to collect the Qur’an and he also himself a hafiz then he arrange the Qur’anin a book form in his period Qur’an should write and arrange in the form ofbook. During his time period hesent the Muslims army to the two world super power one is roman empire andother is Persian empire and mean while he strictly warn the Muslims army don’tdestroy the property don’t kill the worshiper those worship in the temples anddon’t hurt the women , children and the old men. In 634 hazart Khalid bin waleed leading theMuslims army against the Roman Empire on the other side Muslims army also enterin Persia.
After two year of caliphate harazt Abu baker was died at the age of61 in medina. 2ndcaliphAfter thedeath of Abu baker (R.A). hazrat Umar (R.A) hold the caliphate and became 2ndcaliph in Islamic history. The era of hazrat Umar (R.
A) is expansion ofcaliphate and also known as era of victory. After few days he becoming a caliphMuslim army under the command of hazrat Khalid bin waleed conquered the damasks.Umar (R.A) also believed that it is victory for Islam not for Umar and Khalid. Almost all of the Muslims were ready to givethe oath to the hazrat Umar (R.A) during the time of selection of 2nd caliph .
hazratUmar was feel afraid about the love of the people. The first challenge forhazrat Umar (R.A) was to win over his subjects and members of Majlis al Shura. Umarhas great experience how to win the people hearts for the betterment of Islam. Hazrat Umar’sstress was on the well-being of poor and those people who did not enjoyed thelife as other Arab rich can. Umar also tried to solve the conflicts reputationand relationship with Banu Hashim,the tribe of Ali, delivered to him his disputed estates in Khyber.He followed the order of 1st caliph over the conflicted land of Fidak, andcontinued its status as a state property.
In the Ridda wars, thousands of prisoners fromrebel and apostate tribes were taken away as slaves during the era of victory.Umar ordered the general pardoned for the prisoners, and their immediateliberation. This madeUmar quite popular among the Bedouintribes. With the help ofpeople, Umar took a great decision of declaring the Khalid ibn Waleed supremecommander of Muslim army against the Roman front. Political and civil administrationThegovernment of Umar hold the Muslim Uma together. hazrat Umar (R.A) divided his realm into states and some independent stateslike in some areas Azerbaijan and Armenia, these state claim them equal to the caliphate. Thestates were administered by the governors or Wali ofthe state, the selection of governor which was done personally byUmar.
hazrat Umar (R.A) was very intelligent inthis matter.Thesestates were also dividedinto districts, there were about100 districts in the realm. Eachdistrict or main city wasunder the control of ajunior governor or Amir, mostof the time selected by hazrat Umar (R.A) but some time they were also decided bythe governor of the state. Harazt Umar (R.A) alsointroduced the administration system, regular army, garrison, cities politicaland judiciary system.
Healso made a successful network of intelligence, partly a reason for his stronggrip on his bureaucracy. Hazrat Umar (R.A) was a great and brilliant politicalleader and, as planer of the government solidity.
Hazrat Umar (R.A) played verygreat role as a chief adviser of prophet. DuringAbu Bakr’s era, he also played great role as his secretary and primary adviser.
He is greatest known leader for the expansion of great and strongadministrative structure of the government which keep together large Islamicstate Visit toJerusalem in 637 CEAfter thetwo year of 2nd caliph Muslims armies conquered the western Jorden and theyalso invade the holy city Jerusalem but there is a problem the people ofJerusalem asked to the Muslim commander they only surrender themselves and cityonly in the front of supreme leader (caliph hazrat Umar) then he came toJerusalem for their surrender. Christian community also invite the caliph inchurch to pay his prayer but Umar said to rejecting this invitation if I prayerhere then the Muslims after me will want to pray here. Hazrat Umar also askedthem I will not take this church from Christian and he also gave them a copy ofinsurance which is hanging on the wall of masjid named as Umar. (This is guarantee of peace and protectiongiven by the servant of Allah, Umar.
He gave them assurance of protection fortheir levies, property, and church and the cross as well as the sick andhealthy and the all its religious community) Umar also order the Jews to leave the holycity of Jerusalem after the Jews requested caliph give them permission of livingin Jerusalem. Umar only allow the seventy Jews family to live in westernJerusalem. Hazrat Umaralso ordered to build a canal connecting Neil to the red sea to reduce the riskof famine which effect the medina and its crops and the transformation of grainfrom areas those are rich in food or other things to areas suffering thepoverty and famine and he also build a nine mile long canal for people of Basrato providing them clean and pure drinking water from the Tigris river and governorof Basra also build other canal for agriculture. Hazrat Umarlived in mud hut he is very simple man. hazrat Umar also introduce thedepartment of bait ul mall for poor , orphan , widows and old poor men .
Heallowed the tax free trade but tax on wealth and he also develop the courts forJews and Christian community in which they solve theirs matter according to theirown law and he also introduce the Islamic cleaner.In 644 hewas leading the fajer prayer one of his slave stabbing the knife in his bellysix time suddenly other people want to arrest the killer but he also stab thenine or ten people in the end he commit suicide. Before his death he also wrotea letter in which he mentioned about next caliph (hazrat Usman (R.A). After hisdeath a committee formed who chose the 3rd caliph among those six people whichwere mentioned by 2nd caliph in which hazrat Ali (R.A) and hazrat Usman (R.
A)were also mentioned. In the end committee chose hazrat Usman.3rd caliph In 644hazrat Usman became 3rd caliph of Islamic territory he was richest traderbefore the accepting the Islam he also married prophet two daughters. He wasintelligent and sharp merchant from the youth he has great experience abouteconomy then he also increase allocation about 25% for the poor and needypeople he also remove the ban on agricultural land which owe by conquered areasand increase the loan scheme for the people. Hazrat Usman (R.
A) did not get pay fromtreasury and did not use it for his personal purposes even has such rightduring his role Muslims and non-Muslims also enjoyed the economic success. Healso introduced the Islamic stamp on coin.hazratUsman (R.A) also brought the changes in army rank he also gave the high rankhis dearest and trustworthy men he sent the army to subcontinent and Africa. He alsoimprove the naval forces which defeated the Romanian naval forces open the wayof trade.
He marched the Muslims army towards the Spain in few month theyinvade Spain on the other hand Muslims army also invade the northern coastal areaof Africa on the mean while Muslims invade the Andalusia in the east theyreached in khorasan and invade it. Muslimsarmies also reached now Turkmenistan and they also invade the Baluchistan Sindhand remaining areas of Persia.In 655caliphate face many crisis one is more dangerous was against the caliph on thissituation caliph held the meeting of his governors to solve the issue andpeople who are behind this will be ended with their bad goals. Rebel speared fast in the all states thencaliph sent his private spy to investigate the rebellions and understand their problemson their return to medina they told the caliph about people views in some statespeople are satisfied with caliph but in Egypt they are against the caliph andthey also want kill him. On the mean while the governor of some statessent army to medina for the protection of caliph but caliph reject their help.A time came when the 1000 people sent to medina to kill the caliph, on thedaily basis riots increases in medina.The mainreason for arose of the anti-Usman movement is disputed between the Shia andSunni Muslims.
Other reason is that caliph only pay heeded on hisrelatives he also gave them high posts and the rebellions also want the Ali asa caliph.In 656 inmedina caliph house guarded by his supporters in which Hassan and hussan ibn Aliwere included during the riot the rebellion enter in the caliph house climbedthrough the back wall of house and they stab the caliph under his neck while hewas reading the holy Qur’an. suddenly caliph wife enter in the room whenshe saw the people around the caliph then she started yelling and beaten herface with hands Then rebels left the house and the supporters of hazrat Usman(R.
A) at the gate heard them and entered, but it was too late.4th caliphAfter theassassination of 3rd caliph hazrat Usman (R.A) one thing has clear the newcaliph will be chosen by rebellions and they also gave one day for the appointment of new caliph. Theygave them three names in which name of son-in-law of prophet (?) was included. Many rebellions went tothe prophet son-in-law ali (R.
A) asked him to accept their offer but ali rejecttheir offer and they also went to the other to member to accept their offerthey also did same as ali did. When close companions of prophet Muhammad (?) went to ali and asked him to accepttheir proposal otherwise it go in wrong hands and there is danger of misused ofcaliphate but ali unwillingly accepted it and became the 4th caliphof Islamic government all people gave the oath to ali (R.A) and other twomember also gave him oath in privately in this harsh condition ali became 4thcaliph and he also replaced the governors of the states which were appointed byhazrat Usman (R.A) he appointed his trustworthy people, on this condition oract of caliph one governor of state Levant and also stand against the caliph they reject the ali (R.A) decision.
When he became the caliph on the next day he warnedthe people of medina about if anyone found in guilty he did not tolerated andhe also added he only chose the caliphate to prevent the Islam from evil. The FirstFitnahThe FirstFitna, 656–661, followed the assassination of usman continued during thecaliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah’s assumption of the caliphate. HazratAisha prophet beloved wife, some of prophet close associates and thecousin of 3rd caliph (Muawiyah) and (Marwan) came to ‘Ali and asked to himto punish those rebellions who had killed Usman. They settled near toBasra state. The talkslasted for many days and the subsequent heated exchange and protests during theparley turned from words to blows, leading to loss of life on both sides. Inthe uncertainty the Battle of the Camel started in 656, where victoryfallen into Ali,s side.
Under such circumstances, a split took placewhich led to the first civil war between Muslims in Islamic history. SomeMuslims, fight in the right of Usman 3rd caliph and they also considered Usmana rightful and just caliph till the end, who had been unlawfullykilled. On the other hand Some Muslims, who are known asparty of Ali, believed Usman was wrong and fallen in guilty , he had forfeitedthe caliphate and been lawfully executed for his non-acceptance to mend hisways or step down; thus Ali was the just and true Imam and his opponents are wrongin their decision. This was not the position of Ali himself. This civil war created permanent divisionswithin the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupythe caliphateAliselected ‘Abd Allah ibn al’-Abbas governor of Basra and shifted hiscapital to Kufa, the Muslim city in Iraq. Following the Roman and Persianbattles that lasted for hundreds of years, there were effective differencesbetween Iraq, officially governed by the Persian Sassanid dynasty andthe state of Syria officially ruled by the (Byzantine) Roman Empire. TheIraqis citizen wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to bein Kufa so as to bring revenues into their area and reject the proposal of Syria.
Theypersuade hazrat Ali (R.A) to come to Kufa and establish the capital in Kufa, inIraq. ThenMuawiyah the governor of Levant and the cousin of Usman refused Ali’sdemands for obedience. Ali opened consulting hoping to recoup Muawiyahs allegiance,but Muawiyah resisted on Levant independence under his rule.
In this duration Egypt and Levant also separatedfrom main caliphate made their governments.During4th caliph reign he introduced many departments and run campaign against thosepeople who found in guilty he also mentioned that there will no tolerance for whoinvolved in finical corruption and he manage the rank in government accordingto caliph every one enjoy the same rights even if someone is governor. He also warned his governor about poorand rich people he mention that all are equal and treated them same as youtreat rich. He also said Remember that displeasure anddisapproval of common men, have-nots and depressed persons more thanoverbalances the approval of important persons and displeasure of a few bigwill be excused by the Lord if the general public and masses of your subjectsare happy with you. The common men, the poor, apparently lessimportant sections of your subjects are the pillars of Islam….be more friendlywith them and secure their confidence and sympathy. Ali (R.A) also imposed the central law of governmentin this law central government play important role or insurgency in any of the Islamicprovince.
HazratAli (R.A) also took back the land from the people because these propertiesbelong to government which are granted to people during the hazrat Usman era bythe order of him and he also divided the treasury among the people and ruled bypeople. .Economicresources of caliphateThere were six economical resourceof Islamic reignIn the Islamicstate it was debt on every Muslim who is rich and also has land or other propertylike gold, cattle etc. its mean he has luxury life then he is also able to paythe zakat about 2.5% of his wealth to the poor if these thing or wealth are notused in year. Islamic caliphate also introduced the niasbits mean if minimum increase in property then it called nisab this wealth didnot add into existing wealth.
Jewelry,etc. Zakat isone of the Five Pillars of Islam and it is obligation on all Muslimswho qualify as wealthy enough.When Islamic state introduced the zakatmean while it introduced the system of jizya which is only for the non-Muslimsits mean a tax taken from rich non-Muslims in every year. This tax did not applyon the poor, widows, children, monks, sick, and the slaves. From this tax governmentalso help the poor and sick.Fay wasthe income from State land, whether an agricultural land or a meadow, or a landwith any natural minerals reserves.
Ghanimah or Khums wasthe booty captured on the occasion of war with the enemy. Four-fifths of thebooty was distributed among the soldiers taking part in the war while one-fifthwas credited to the state fund.Kharaj wasa tax on agricultural land.Initially, after the firstMuslim conquests in the 7th century, kharaj usually denoted alump-sum duty levied upon the conquered provinces and collected by theofficials of the former Byzantine and Sasanian empires, or, more broadly, anykind of tax levied by Muslim conquerors on their non-Muslim subjects, dhimmis. At that time, kharaj wassynonymous with jizyah, which later emerged as a poll tax paid by dhimmis.
Muslimlandowners, on the other hand, paid only ushr, a religious tithe, which carried amuch lower rate of taxation. Ushr wasa reciprocal 10% levy on agricultural land as well as merchandise imported fromstates that taxed the Muslims on their products. Umar was the first Muslimruler to levy ushr.
When the Muslim traderswent to foreign lands for the purposes of trade they had to pay a 10% tax tothe foreign states. Ushr was levied on reciprocal basis on the goodsof the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions.Umar issued instructionsthat ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship,that it will not affect the trade activities in the Islamic empire. The tax waslevied on merchandise meant for sale. Goods imported for consumption orpersonal use but not for sale were not taxed.
The merchandise valued at 200dirhams or less was not taxed. When the citizens of the State imported goodsfor the purposes of trade, they had to pay the customs duty or import tax atlower rates. In the case of the dhimmis the rate was 5% and in thecase of the Muslims’ 2.5%.
In the case of the Muslims the rate was the same asthat of zak?t. The levy was thus regarded as a part of zak?t andwas not considered a separate tax.