from 1960s’ United States and the Soviet Union began to launch probe missions
to Venus. The key Soviet series was named Venera and the American missions were
named Mariner. There are many Venus missions, including seven had analyzed rock
conformations. At large, penetrating pressure and hurricane-force winds destroy
all probes within 60 minutes, except in 1982, a Venera probe lands on surface
and operated normally for 127 minutes and most of the data on Venus due to the
long and intense workings of the Soviets. Meariner 2 which passed more than
twenty thousand miles was the up-front Soviet spacecraft established the
intensity of Venus’s surface circumstances and measured its magnetic field in
1961. Venera 4 was the earliest Soviet probe successfully returned report about
Venusian atmosphere in the evening time period of Venus in the height of 26 kilometers.

It indicated that vast majority of Venusian atmosphere consists of carbon
dioxide and temperature and pressure increased gradually as probe parachuted to
Venus’s surface, until the temperature reached 262oC and 18 Pascal. Venera
8 accomplished its anterior soft land down during daytime period of Venus in
1872 with record with 880oF temperature, having achievement of
measurement of velocity of wind, light intensity, superficial radioactivity and
pressure. Three year later, the next series Venera 9 took images of Venus’s
surface and made the first measurements of the properties of the clouds, the
gravitational field and wind speed. Pioneer Venus 1 was an orbiter with the
first radar, ultraviolet, and infrared observation, its highly elliptical orbit
brought it within 120 miles to its planet’s surface. The relative recent Venus
missions include MESSENGER, a NASA robotic spacecraft which had two Venus flybys.

Its second flyby of Venus on June 5 2007 at an altitude of 338 km flew with the
largest velocity reduction of the mission. This encounter to Venus using all
equipment provided visible and near-infrared imaging data, ultraviolet and
X-ray spectrometry of the northern atmosphere of Venus. Another latest mission
Venus Express operated by European Space Agency have several achievements such
as first temperature map of southern hemisphere, evidence of past oceans,
presence of lightings, discovery of huge double atmospheric vortex existed at
south pole in Venus etc.


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