Statement of Problem
Tourism is the largest industry in the
world by the indicators of Global GDP’s percentage (11%), the total percentage
of employment (more than 10%), and the estimation of total tourists travel will
be 1.6 billion in 2020 (WWF International, 2001). Furthermore, WWF International (2001) stated
tourism development can bring positive effects for both nature and people
through appropriate tourism or sustainable tourism implementation such as
producing both economic chances for communities and states, and raising
people’s awareness regarding local culture and nature conservation. However, tourism development also can bring
negative effects through irresponsible tourism or unsustainable tourism development
in the form of pollution, increased waste, degradation of land and habitats,
and natural resources reduction. Emphasizing
appropriate tourism or sustainable tourism development, UNEP and WTO (2005,
p.12) defined sustainable tourism as “Tourism that takes full account of its current and
future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of
visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities”.
Furthermore, in context of Indonesia, this
country is known around the world for it rich and unique natural and cultural
resources. These resources are crucial asset to the development of tourism
industry in Indonesia, particularly ecotourism and cultural and rural tourism.
Based on 2015’s data from The Ministry of Tourism of The Republic of Indonesia,
the tourism sector was in fourth largest contributor of state revenues after
Oil and Nature Gas, Coal, and Palm Oil with a total of 12,225.89 million USD
(Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2016). Moreover, by 2019, The Ministry of Tourism of
The Republic of Indonesia projects that tourism industry will be the biggest
contributor sector for Indonesia state’s revenue, 24 million USD (Kementerian
Pariwisata Republik Indonesia, 2017).
From these data we can see, how pivotal the role of tourism sector for
Indonesia’s current economy and future economic development. In order to achieve that goal, Indonesian
Government is required to promote a sustainable tourism development.
One of the factors that is essential for
developing sustainable tourism industry is stakeholders participation through
collaboration. In context of Indonesia,
Sutawa (2012) concluded that the sustainable tourism development will be easier
to attain if all concerned stakeholders participated, particularly in managing
all matters that can produce negative effects on tourism development. Moreover, Graci (2013) stated in developing
sustainable tourism industry, collaboration is crucial. Additionally UNEP and WTO (2005) stated the
comprehensive and fair principle of sustainable development indicates the
participation of broad stakeholders is required in developing and managing
sustainable tourism. Furthermore, Waligo et al. (2012) cited many
scholars such as Fyall and Garrod (2005); Hall (2000); Jamal and Getz (1995);
and, Ladkin and Bertramini (2002) that argued the collaboration of stakeholder
shows a broader avenue of accepted solutions regarding problems in tourism
development due to limited comprehension among related stakeholders about the
problems and the objectives of tourism development. In addition, Waligo et al. (2012) also mentioned six groups
of stakeholders related to tourism development, which are: government, local
community, tourists, special interest groups, educational institutions, and
Based on empirical studies above, it is
clear that stakeholders participation in form of collaboration among
stakeholders has an important role in sustainable tourism development. Yet, in
the Indonesian context, there are still little studies that analyze the
influence of tourism policy on stakeholders collaboration at the local level in
achieving sustainable tourism development. Therefore, in this paper, I will
fill this gap by analyzing the tourism policy application by Kulon Progo
Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, one of the leading provinces in
Indonesia in tourism sector, and how the policy affects local stakeholder
collaboration in supporting sustainable tourism development, especially in the context
of Dolan Deso Boro tourism site. The results of this analyses will be used as a
policy recommendation for the Tourism Agency in Kulon Progo local government in
improving their policy formulation in tourism sector particularly in the
context of managing better local stakeholders collaboration to support
sustainable tourism development in Kulon Progo Regency, Indonesia.
How do local government and local
stakeholders collaborate to support sustainable tourism goals at Dolan Deso
Boro tourism site?
A qualitative methodology will be
used in this study. The methodology will implement purposive sampling method through interviews
(in-depth semi-structured interviews) with key stakeholders, Focus Group
Discussion (FDG), direct observation, documentation (photos, videos, notes, and
audios), and relevant documents analysis.
Graci, S. (2013). Collaboration and
partnership development for sustainable tourism. Tourism Geographies, 15:1, 25-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2012.675513.
Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia.
(2016, December 27). Ranking devisa pariwisata
terhadap komoditas ekspor lainnya Tourism foreign exchange rank towards others
export commodities. Retrieved January 14, 2017, from http://www.kemenpar.go.id/asp/detil.asp?c=87=1198.
Kementerian Pariwisata Republik Indonesia.
(2017, February). Laporan akuntabilitas
kinerja Kementerian Pariwisata tahun 2016 2016 Ministry of Tourism
Accountability Performance Report. Retrieved January 10, 2018, from http://www.kemenpar.go.id/userfiles/LAKIP.pdf.
Sutawa, G.K. (2012). Issues on Bali
tourism development and community empowerment to support sustainable tourism
development. Procedia Economics and
Finance, 4, 413-422.
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
and World Tourism Organization (WTO). (2005). Making Tourism more sustainable: A guide for policymakers. Retrieved January 19, 2018, from http://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/8741.
Waligo, V.M., Clarke, J., & Hawkins,
R. (2013). Implementing sustainable tourism: A multi-stakeholder involvement
management framework. Tourism Management,
36, 342-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.008.
WWF International. (2001). Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development. Retrieved June 17, 2017, from http://www.widecast.org/Resources/Docs/WWF_2001_Community_Based_Ecotourism_Develop.pdf