Statement forProposed ExaminationTravelling has repercussions that transcend beyond the hostcity and has implications for the ecosystem as a whole. Internationaltravelling could have pervasive health risks, subjected on the characteristicsof both the travel and the traveller. Travellers could be challenged withsevere health risks which might spring from regions that have poor qualityaccommodation and where there is inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
Springingfrom that context, it is of much importance that efficient research base is builtaround travelling and the health risks it poses so as to better equip thecountries in taking measures for countering those risks (Clift & Page, 2015)The traveller’s health is an area that deals with the risks,individual and collective, caused by the movement of people and theirinteraction with various environments. Travel health issues are beingincreasingly addressed by government, airlines and shipping companies andtravel agencies. However, most of these actions are still restricted to pre-tripvaccination recommendations and descriptions of risks posted on Internet pages.According to traditional epidemiological and healthsurveillance policies, the use of prevention measures in travellers isjustified, since such measures may reduce the risk of epidemics (Organization, 2016). There are differentprofiles of travellers: tourists, professionals, migrants, refugees, soldiersand volunteers. These travellers differentiate themselves as to the origin anddestinations of the trip, objectives during the trip and individualcharacteristics. In this way, the traveller cannot be regarded as unity; itmust be recognized according to its diversity. Therefore, differentiatedstrategies are needed to address this challenge in health systems.
Among the various profiles of travellers, it is remarkable growthof the tourist. Around the world, there has been a significant increase intourist flow between 1997 and 2007, with more than 900 million tourists intransit, according to the World Tourism Organization (Organization, 2016). In the same period, the number offoreign tourists arriving in Brazil reached 5 million. Between 2001 and 2003there was a decline in this movement, which can be explained by the terroristattacks in the United States and the severe acute respiratory syndrome thatspread to some Asian countries. Other public health emergencies may haveimpacted tourism, such as avian influenza in 2005 and swine influenza in 2009 (Nakata & Rost, 2015).In any case, tourists are becoming increasingly important in internationalhealth surveillance issues. Overview of the ResearchAreaThe patterns of travel precisely influence the outbreaks ofcertain health diseases. In the year 2007, Hollingsworth stated that theinternational expansion is supposed to be increased by the frequent travellersin case they became infected in the initial stage and an unwelcoming eventoccurs promptly, otherwise.
The routes adopted for travel, the certain networksof aviation, the number of departing flights and their arrival at the landingfields, the carried number of travellers, along with the magnitude of theflying jet are significant deliberations in appraising the range of advanceepidemics, in accordance with the statement of Hufnagel (Hufnagel, Brockmann, & Geisel, 2004) .It was brieflydescribed for the certain sorts of infections or diseases that the constraintsin travel, specifically segregation of huge towns, will be an essential elementin the regulatory strategies of epidemic (Hufnagel, Brockmann, & Geisel, 2004).The current approachto travel through air could accelerate the expansion of “influenza pandemic” incontrast with the “past pandemics”. In the year 1985, Rvachev & Longinihighlighted in their study that there were more than hundred and sixty milliontravellers reported to travel internationally through the “commercial flights”during the period of “1968 to 1969”. Whereas that number of travellersincreased in the year 2012 up to “2.9 billion” of passengers through the “InternationalCivil Aviation Organization, 2012)” (Rvachev & Longini, 1985). The display ofepidemic with the data comprised of transportation through air in year 2000 fora total number fifty two cities presented that there is a possibility for theexpansion of influenza simultaneously to the cities in “both hemispheres”,consequent to the minimum turn of the seasons and limited timeframe for theintervention of “public health” (Lawton & Page, 1997). Infections anddiseases are supposed to be spread in the close or neighbouring cities or areasinitially, however the distant cities or towns are supposed to be affected asthey have the higher volumes of air travel, “a pandemic initiating in Hong Kong can now spreadspeedily to northern hemisphere cities 111 days earlier than in 1968 (Lawton & Page, 1997).
Recognisingthe domestic settings of environment and the associations by travel have thepossibility to offer estimations for the spread of diseases. Background of theTopic Vibrant relations have been observed among the places andmicrobes with the travellers. Passengers are considered to have such microbesand their hereditary material and have the potential to perform several rolesin relation with these microbes. Wilson (2003) highlighted that the passengersare possibly the victims, couriers, transmitters, sentinels and the processorsof the “microbial patterns”. On the contrary, arrival of passengers can havecertain influence on the “host population” by having interaction orcommunication with the dynamic groups of individuals and microbes all over thetour, while sharing the settings of environment consecutively. Passengers oughtto be deliberated as a loop, rather than only a destination or origin.
According to the statement of Wilson (2003), tours are ought to be linked withthe behaviours which drives towards the broadcast of “pathogens through blood”and the exposure of the fluid of body. There is a possibility that thepassengers are involved in sexual activities, follow sports of extreme activityalong with the hiking in the “mountains of jungle” or the other activities thatare more expose towards the injuries, as they are not being risked to beperformed at home (Hobson & Dietrich, 1995). Proposed ResearchAims and Objective RO1: To identify thefactors that concerns tourists regarding their health.RO2: To find out theimpact of health related risks at infected tourism spots.RO3: To interpret theimportance of appropriate vaccinations before the touring. Research Questions RQ1: What are thefactors that concerns tourists regarding their health?RQ2: To what extent theinfected tourism spots creates a health related risks?RQ3: How important itis to take premedication before the tour? Methodology The proposed research method would be qualitative in essencewhereby literature would be assessed that pertains to the travelling to regionsthat is inflicted with pandemics. The literature would be gathered throughpublished reports, article, journal, books and internet Sources (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007.
). This examinationwill be carried out by the secondary information survey on the strategy. Theexam strategy involves how the world collects, verifies, and separatesinformation (Creswell, 2011).Secondary examination is a rigorousstrategy with procedural and evaluation progress, such as basic researchtechnique.
Secondary research provides information of methodological advantagesand can increase tourism through the study of new learning production (Bryman, Social Research Methods, 2001). The overall aimof this strategy is the same as the goal of others, to add logical learning bypresenting another point of view; this only contradicts reliance on existinginformation. Tourism analysts should explore excellent information that can beaccessed and consider the potential motivation to learn and give knowledgeabout a wide range of tourism issues through the use of secondary informationresearch on information technology. After demonstrating the data and then analysing theinformation and discussion about the tourism and the health effects of infectiousdiseases will go through the different methods theories for this research.This research will use correct method to obtain more broad understanding. By emphasizing about the the epistemological mattersand factors considering the relevance of the theory and this research (Creswell, 2011).
And then it will beidentified that which of the method seems to be the most applicable for theresearch process, and also the measuring tool and the instrument should beselected for making the inner into pilot the research and the method ofsampling technique (Bryman & Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007). Moreover, the othersegment will go over and reasonably talk about the reliability, validity andgeneralizability linked with the selected method. By using these method itwill permit for the data gathering up tothe base of generalizable propositions that can be tested but also to collectdata, that is not mentioned in thethis current literature (Bryman & Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007).
However, thisresearch process will pursue the main purpose of this study and obtain aim andobjective. Investigating through the different aspect by using variations inthis online survey based on a questionnaire in order to find the involvementfrom the both side researchers at the participant outlook and opinion (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007.).
Significance of theResearch The term “traveller” in this two forms (traveller)was used in addition to “tourist”, because it is a broader conceptthan tourist. There is still no conceptual standard: many studies deal withtourists without, however, using the term tourist. On the other hand, themovement of people is not a specific feature of tourism, it also covers migrantgroups or other population groups such as gypsies, army, volunteers orrefugees.
The following types of articles were excluded: articles dealing withtravellers other than tourists; articles dealing with animal health; conceptualand review articles. Those aspects would be evaluated: study topic, location(origin or destination of the trip), research occasion (before, during or afterthe trip), type of tourist employed, methodology used, health problems studiedand actions and policies. Travellers should be seen as an essential part of globaldisease surveillance. Research and collected information can be used to alertthe global group to examples of near or isolated pathogens in differentlocations. Illuminates the methodologies that can be used to control disease inthe creation of nations; and prepare to explore these areas and guide the careof those who return. The most notable lesson in Ebola’s motivation was that theworld would react faster than ever before with whips. Regulatory andpreparatory efforts have significantly reduced the potential impact of Ebola onthe African economy, unlike the worst case scenario ( (Steffen & Banos, 2003).
This shows why all states, created and created, must make the need for moreresources for pandemic preparedness. The report focuses on the need toestablish a global office to finance the pandemic crisis that will enable theworld to respond more quickly and more appropriately to dangerous rings in thefuture and maintain a strategic distance from the terrible and futile human andmonetary costs of the Ebola, plague (Laver, Wetzels, & Behrens, 2001).Ethnical Consideration In terms of the considering ethical issues,make sure that one is not causing or harming the participant in any aspect suchas verbally discriminating with the age, religion, gender, ethnic group andappearance (Bryman & Bell, Business Research Methods, 2007). Ensure prior theinterview that all required information will be provided to the interviewees so that theywill not have any issues while making the decision or signing consent form (Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls, & Ormston, 2014)).
å Insuring that theinformation provided by the interviewee will not be given to the any thirdparty and data protection will be kept and will not be mislead in any chances (Ott & Longnecker, 2010).TimeFrameThe study will becompleted between 2018 and 2020, with the literature review taking place duringa large part of the first months, followed by the design and realization of thefield research in late 2018-early 2019. Analysis of the data will be completedin the third year followed by interpretation of the main findings andconnection to the existing literature. Bibliography Bryman, A. (2001). Social Research Methods.
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