SWOT ANALYSIS ON TRENDING OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTSAbstract: Delay in construction projects being a very common problemthat affects the construction industry and economical growth of the country hasvarious factors.
Through past studies, one of the important identified factorsamong them is delay due to improper construction equipment management. In thecurrent scenario machines compete with men and show a huge difference in theprogress of the work. But every technological development also has a negativeimpact. Hence a SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat) Analysis isconducted on trending of construction equipment through brainstorming sessionsfrom 25 experts of construction industries. The SWOT factors are prioritizedand most significant factor affecting construction industry and reasons ofconstruction delay due to construction equipment that affects the progress ofthe work is identified. Possible recommendations for the identified reasons aregiven and proposed for further research to solve those identified threats.Keywords: construction delay, constructionequipments, equipment maintenance, SWOT analysisIntroductionIntoday’s highly competitive economic environment, the need for completingconstruction projects within the stipulated cost, time frame, and expectedperformance expectations is becoming increasingly important 17. Delivering project on-time or not has much to do with earning orlosing a profit and/or a return on investment for parties 22.
The mostimportant causes identified for delay of construction projects were delay inpayment by the head office, frequent change of staffs, poor site management,improper management by the engineers, delay in supply of material, equipmentrelated issues and lack of manpower 23. Although there have been many effortsto increase the productivity of construction and infrastructure projects inrecent years, the industry is still suffering from low productivity growth. Thedynamics involved in most projects as they enter the construction phase, makesit necessary to revise initial project plans and decisions, which may in turnresult in potential delays and rework 8.Due to the technological advancements and in the needfor faster completion of works construction equipments are chosen instead ofmanual labours. Though these equipments are chosen for its high capacity towork on time and to obtain large productivity, there are times when thesetrusted equipments bring failure to the construction projects. In order to getprofited by the use of advanced technologies, the project managers must ensurethe availability of the required equipment that can meet the deadline of the constructionproject completion 10.
A SWOT i.e. Strength Weakness Opportunity Threatanalysis on trending of construction equipments explores both the positive aswell as the negative impact of the advanced technological development in theconstruction industry.
Objective· To conduct SWOT survey throughbrainstorming from construction industry experts on trending of constructionequipments.· To prioritize the SWOT analysis factorsand identify the reasons for delay from the negative impacts caused due totrending of construction equipment.· To identify the gap for future researchrequired to overcome delay issues.ScopeDelay reasons due to trending of construction equipmentare identified through SWOT analysis by brainstorming from experts andconsidered as future scope to proceed with the research. This furtherdevelopment of research in this area will result in the development of theconstruction industry to overcome delay related issues.Literature SurveyThe data to be collected is categorized as “bestpractices” which includes procedures related to security, acceptance ofwork and control of quality and “adverse information” which includesconflicts with other participants in the investment process, accidents onconstruction site or construction delays. It is more difficult to get the socalled “adverse information” since it requires confidentiality,because they can greatly harm the image of the company 1.Inaccurate estimation may result in delay and costoverrun.
In most cases delay factors are inter-related. Also inaccurateschedule update will result in inaccurate forecast which may significantlyimpact resource levelling and manpower estimate 4. Important delay factorsare resources, participants of the project and a group of unpredictablefactors. Delays are classified as justified and unjustified causes. Justifiedcauses are fault of investor and may be subject to compensation and justifiedbut not subject to compensation such as whether condition. Unjustified causesare the fault of contractor 3. The top five delay causes for construction projectswere ‘shortage of adequate equipment,’ ‘poor communication among contractingparties,’ ‘problems with subcontractors,’ ‘inadequate experience of the designteam’ and ‘frequent change orders by clients.’ 27.
Examples of delay factors include corruption of governmentofficials, issues clearing imported material and equipment from customs, poorlabour productivity, security threats to construction sites, and theft ofequipment, owner cash flow problems, change orders, and unexpected adverseweather conditions 19. The most influential factor for time is unsettled orlack of project funding 18. While some of the delay causes are dependent onnational economic policies, others may be overcome by measures to be taken bypublic agencies and contractors. 24The delays themselves arenot always fixed in when they might have their effects and it is felt to be importantthat this be recognized 25. Delays can be avoided or minimized when theircauses are clearly identified 12. Delay analysis methods which are already inpractice in construction industries are not appropriate 15. Hence a properdelay analysis methodology is required to be framed to have a clear delayliability allocation and disputes can be diminished 11.
Delay results in disputes.Better understanding methods to be developed to reduce disputes during delayclaims. 16 Undermodern conditions of the construction companies operation in terms of themodern crisis and competition, the construction works mechanization becomesactual and it plays an important role in the production efficiency increase7. Modern and advanced projects which uses heavy equipment must performequipment scheduling and productivity analyses by simulation methods and notjust by past record analyses or direct site observation reports in order toreduce significant errors in estimation and avoid delay 9.Heavy equipment refers hold an important role inexecuting construction projects and production operations 26. The most common construction equipment related delay causes are: Shortagein equipment/insufficient numbers; Lack of skilled operators for specializedequipment; Equipment productivity (efficiency); Equipment failure (breakdown); Slow delivery (mobilization) ofequipment; Lack of high-technology mechanical equipment; Equipment allocationproblems; Tool availability; Improper equipment; Inadequate modern equipment14. “Shortage of equipment” factor is the most important factor causingdelay in construction projects in Egypt at this category, with a RelativeImportance Index equals to 84.
256% 13.Due tothe increase in using equipment in various construction activities, planningthe maintenance of this equipment has become extremely important as this aidsmeeting project deadlines 10. Machine maintenance insuch a way to enable just in time component replacement 6. It is also a common practice that maintenance does notreceive enough attention in the construction industry, especially in developingcountries. With poor maintenance, equipment breakdowns happen quite often. 20SWOT Analysis throughbrain storming Strength:1. Timely completion of work2.
Cost control3. Better quality and output of work4. Reduction in wastage of raw materials5. Satisfy the demands of manual labour.6.
Material movement at faster mode.7. Easy execution of bigger size works Weakness:1. Sudden breakdown of machines.2.
Limited workspace3. Non-Availability of spare parts in localmarkets.4. Incompatible equipments within thecountry.5.
Expensive investment.6. At times unsatisfactory finishing.7.
Equipment idleness in rainy season.8. Subjected to wind load and lightening.Opportunity:1.
Demand for equipment manufacturing2. Increased cost effective productivity3. Innovative solutions to meet customer’sexpectationsThreats:1. Equipment maintenance constrains2. Demand for well trained skilledoperators3. Massive accidents4. Disappearance of Good craftsman 5.
Collision due to overloadPrioritization of SWOT Analysis factorsIn Table 1 and Table 2 the mostsignificant SWOT factor through advanced SWOT analysis method is identified. Highlightedcells point to the most significant factors. Strengths and weaknesses areevaluated on 3 categories: (a)Importance: Anumber from 0.
01 (not important) to 1.0 (very important) should be assigned toeach strength and weakness. The sum of all weights should equal 1.0 (includingstrengths and weaknesses). (b) Rating:A score from 1 to 3 is given to each factor to indicate whether it is a major(3) or a minor (1) strength or weakness. (c) Score:Score is a result of importance multiplied by rating. It allows prioritizingthe strengths and weaknesses.
Opportunities and threats are prioritizedslightly differently than strengths and weaknesses. Their evaluation includes: (a) Importance: It shows to whatextent the external factor might have an impact. Again, the numbers from 0.01(no impact) to 1.0 (very high impact) should be assigned to each item. The sumof all weights should equal 1.0 (including opportunities and threats).
(b) Probability: Probability of occurrence is showinghow likely the opportunity or threat will have any impact. It should be ratedfrom 1 (low probability) to 3 (high probability). (c) Score: Importancemultiplied by probability will give a score by which you’ll be able to prioritizeopportunities and threats 21Reasons forconstruction delay due to construction equipmentFrom SWOT analysis and field survey, some of theidentified equipment related construction delays are due to:· Improper equipment allocation · Sudden equipment breakdowns · Improper equipment maintenance· Inadequate modern equipment · Low efficiency of equipment · Shortage of equipment · Slow mobilization of equipment · Demand in trained operators forspecialized equipments· Lack of advanced mechanical equipments· Non availability of spare parts in localmarket.RecommendationsAn overall survey and expert interview states thatimproper maintenance is the key reason for all equipment related failures.Hence an equipment team has to be employed which should track the functioningof all the equipment and maintain record in its efficiency and an inspection to beconducted during delay time i.e.
the time when the equipment is in runningcondition but with some defects to be rectified. Collisioncontrol devices to be installed at place of multiple cranes at site. Awarenessto be created to get trained for heavy equipment operator jobs which will alsohelp to reduce unemployment. Avail financial support by the government toimport advanced equipments that are not available in India due to financialcrisis. Equipment to be purchased after confirming the availability of spareparts within the country.
ConclusionBy conducting SWOT survey of trending of constructionequipment the Strength Weakness Opportunity and Threat faced by Indianconstruction industries in completing the project within the scheduled date isanalysed. It is been summarised that most of the construction equipment relatedproblems are due to improper maintenance of equipment. Also maintenance ofequipment is uneconomical. There for a cost-effective maintenance planning isrequired for the construction industry to overcome time overrun due toconstruction equipment related issues.
Future scope The findings of the study put down a way to furthercontinue the research in the following areas: · Improper construction equipmentmaintenance and constrains in setting up of equipment maintanance managementteam.· Equipment wise maintenance requirementsframework· Demand in equipment makes it importantto study the availability of construction equipment needed and to find a sourceto fulfil the demands of both equipments and skilled operators.Reference1 KrzysztofKaczorek (2016) ‘The methodology of carrying out empirical research on thecumulative effect of the factors generating construction delays’, ProcediaEngineering 153 (2016) 256 – 260 2 DavidArditi, Shruti Nayak and Atilla Damci (2017) ‘Effect of organizational cultureon delay in construction’ International Journal of Project Management 35 (2017)136–1473 MichalGluzak and Agnieszka Lesniak (2015) ‘Construction delays in clients opinion –multivariate statistical analysis’ Creative Construction Conference 2015(CCC2015), Procedia Engineering 123 ( 2015 ) 182 – 1894 JoséRamón San Cristóbaa (2014) ‘Cost allocation between activities that have causeddelays in a project using game theory’ Procedia Technology 16 ( 2014 ) 1017 –10265 SamerAlsharif and Aslihan Karatas (2016) ‘A Framework for Identifying Causal Factorsof Delay in Nuclear Power Plant Projects’ International Conference onSustainable Design, Engineering and Construction6 IliasNaskoudakisa and Kleopatra Petroutsatoub (2016) ‘A thematic review of mainresearches on construction equipment over the recent years’ CreativeConstruction Conference 2016 (CCC2016), 25-28 June 2016, Procedia Engineering164 (2016) 206 – 2137 ZalinaTuskaevaa and Gevork Aslanova (2016) ‘Software Product Development for theconstruction equipment selection’ 15th International scientific conference”Underground Urbanisation as a Prerequisite for Sustainable Development”Procedia Engineering 165 ( 2016 ) 1184 – 11918 RezaAkhavian and Amir H. Behzadan (2015) ‘Construction equipment activityrecognition for simulation input modeling using mobile sensors and machinelearning classifiers’ Advanced Engineering Informatics 29 (2015) 867–8779 G.
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