The term ‘morphometry’ is coined by Robert E. Blackith (Blackith,1957). He applied this concept in biological studies with mathematicalapplications (Reyment, 2010). Morphometry is also termed as the measurement ofshape, or geometry, of any natural form.
It is applicable for plant, animal orrelief features (A. N. Strahler, 1969).
The term morphometry is combined withgeography is known as ‘Geomorphometry’. It may be defined as the measurementand mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth surface and of theshape and dimensions of its landforms (J. I. Clarke, 1970). Geomorphometry isthe combination of Geo-science, mathematics and computer science collectivelyresulted into quantitative land surface analysis (Pike et al. 2009). Ingeomorphic studies morphometric Analysis of a watershed performs a quantitativedescription, geological and geomorphic history of the drainage basin (Strahler A.
N., 1964). Morphometric analysis deals with different types of drainagepatterns and its spatial relationship with rivers which are varies from oneanother due to inequalities of slopes, soils, rock resistance, structure andgeological history of the respective region (Paul and Inayathulla, 2012). The results of morphometric analysis are mainly applied in role ofhydrological investigation for development and management of watershed (Singh,1980, Rekha et al.
2011).The Morphometric analysis is mathematical calculation of the parameter involveevaluation of streams through the measurement of various stream properties likes basin perimeter, basin area, basin shapes, channel lengths,absolute relief, relative relief, dissection index, average slope, streamorder, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, standard stream length,stream frequency, drainage texture, relief ratio, form factor, circularityratio, elongation ratio, sinuosity index, lengthof overland flow and so on (Horton, 1932, 1945; Miller 1953; Schumn,1956; Strahler, 1957, 1964; Nautiyal, 1994; Chopra et al. 2005; Nooka Ratnam etal.
2005; Solanke et al. 2005; Akram Javed et al., 2009; Singh, 1980 and Chavare 2011). It includes measurements oflinear, areal and relief aspects of the drainage basin. These descriptors areprinciple indicators for basin processes and to compare basin characteristics(Mesa, 2006; Kanthand Hussan, 2012). There are good correlation proved betweenmorphometric and hydrological characteristics of watershed (Singh and Ghose,1973; Singh and Sharma, 1977 and Singh et al. 1977).
Inmorphometric analysis watershed is considered as a basic unit which means thesurface area drained by a part or the totality of one or several given watercourses and can be taken as a naturally occurring hydrological unitcharacterized by a set of similar topographic, climatic and physical conditions(Akram Javed et al. 2009). It also consist the same community and uniquesocio-economic practices. It deals with both notions i.e. bio-physiography andsocio-economy and comprising all natural resources, people and their economicactivities (Gopal B. Thapa).
Hence, watershed is an ideal unit for managementof Natural resources like land and water and its sustainable development (Kanth and Hussan, 2012).The morphometric analysis isimplemented for watershed unit to understand its physical makeup and the results ofmorphometric analysis are mainly applied in role of hydrological investigationfor development and management of watershed. It could be considered forprioritization of sub-watersheds as well as it is important for DecisionSupport System (DSS) related to watershed development issues.
(P. Chias and T. Abad, 2009; Rekha et al.
2011; Kiranand Srivastava, 2012; Kanth and Hussan, 2012; Panhalkar et al. 2012; UshaChirala et al. 2012; Sangita Mishra S. and Nagarajan R. 2010; Akram Javed etal. 2011; Grohmann, 2004; Akram Javed et al., 2009). As a result, the present chapteraims to assess the morphometric characteristics of Pravara watershed for itsplanning and development.
Sub-watershedsof Pravara Watershed: The Pravara watershed occupies 2621.10 km2areas. Calculation of morphometric parameters for whole huge watershed givesthe general idea about the physical structure, characteristics and basinmorphometry. But general study about morphometry is insufficient for furtherimplementation of development and management policies. DSS requires detailedscenario of morphometric structure. Due to these reason the whole Pravarawatershed has been further divided into 246 sub-watersheds, designated as P1 toP246 for prioritization purpose. These 246 sub-watersheds are used tounderstand the morphometric characteristics, local relief and physiographic structureof the study area.
ArcMap 10.1 software with SWAT analytical tool has been usedto delineate sub-watersheds. The attribute data of Pravara sub-watersheds isgiven in Table no. —- in Appendix. Streamordering of the drainage basin is the initial step of morphometric analysis andit is performed by using stream ordering method proposed by Strahler in 1964.
These246 sub-watersheds have different basin orders. Maximum number of sub-watershedscharacterized by third and fourth order basin, they are 116 and 90respectively. There are 5 first order basins, 33 second order basin and 2 fifthorder basin. The distribution of sub-watersheds according to their order isindicated in Table no.—– and Figure no.
3.1 respectively. Order of the Basin Total no. of the Basins 1st 5 2nd 33 3rd 116 4th 90 5th 2