The medical definition for Diabetes mellitus; more commonly referred to as “diabetes”. It is a chronic disease that is associated with abnormal levels that are too high in the processing of a persons’ sugar glucose in the blood. A less complex way to break down Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes is a gathering of metabolic disease(s) that is described by abnormal amounts of sugar glucose; stemming from the defect in its secretion of insulin. Diabetes, was first known as, or classified, as a disease that is vastly associated with saccharine urine and the excessive loss of muscle in the world of antediluvian.
These elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to the spillage of glucose in the urine. Blood glucose levels are controlled by insulin in the normal production of insulin, by the pancreas (insulin: a hormone that comes from a gland that is situated behind and below the stomach, called the pancreas.). The insulin then lowers the blood glucose levels and when the glucose rises e.g. >> after eating a meal, its insulin released from the pancreas and normalizes the levels of glucose to promote its uptake of glucose into cells of the body and the existence of insufficient production, or a lack in its response to the insulin causes hyperglycemia. There are four types of diabetes: Pre-diabetes (when blood sugar is high, but not high enough to be classified as Type 2 diabetes), Gestational diabetes (when high blood sugar affects pregnant women), Type 1 diabetes, and Type 2 diabetes. With Types 1 and 2, being the most significant, or serious if you will; of the four.
Although diabetes can be controlled, it is considered to be a chronic medical condition that last a lifetime. The main two types of diabetes are aligned with two components. Type 1 Diabetes progresses in early childhood, or at an early age. It’s triggered by the body’s autoimmune process; when the body’s’ immune system erroneously destroys its insulin-making cells, and body loses its ability to make or can only produce a small amount of insulin, and more is then needed. Per the University of California, San Francisco (USCF); about ten percent of the people with diabetes, have Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is the double defect of resistance of insulin and, an inability to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. According to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).
Type 2 diabetes is the most usual form of diabetes worldwide representing eighty to ninety percent of diabetes. For both types of diabetes, types 1 and 2; the symptoms are the alike in most ways. Both conditions involve three distinct symptoms: Polyuria; an increase in urine, due to high blood sugar, Polydipsia; excessive thirst, and Polyphagia; excessive hunger. However, in type 2 diabetes, symptom(s) tend to be more unhurried, than type 1 actions that can lead to having seizures, a coma, and death. When there is a fluctuation of blood glucose levels, it at most times leads to a persons’ vision being blurred, but extremely high levels of the glucose levels can cause patients with diabetes stupor of weariness. Other common symptoms of diabetes are: fatigue/tiredness, nausea or vomiting, skin problems (slow-healing sores), rash, weight loss, dry mouth, yeast infection(s) (Thrush), and, in women; frequent vaginal infections. When symptoms are left untreated or are poorly-treated, recurrence of infections start to arise. When there is a fluctuation of blood glucose levels, it most times leads to a persons’ vision being blurred, but extremely high levels of the glucose levels can cause patients with diabetes lethargy.
Diabetes can be diagnosed by the testing of the blood glucose (glucose tolerance test), and testing the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (glycohemoglobin or hemoglobin A1C). Another test used in the diagnosis of diabetes, is the Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG). This test requires eight (hrs.
), or more fasting diet; restraining from all solids, on the eve before the test is administered; for accuracy. Another test used is, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT); two-hours after a special sweet drink is given to drink, a check of the blood glucose levels; It tells the physician just how the individuals’ body processes glucose. Lastly, a test called Random Plasma Glucose Test (also called Casual). This test can be administered at any time of the day when the persons’ diabetic symptoms are severe.For gestational diabetes, an evaluation of risk factors is done early in a pregnancy. If at a considerable risk (obesity prior to pregnancy, and, or genetic factors family history with diabetes, siblings, child, or parents) for gestational diabetes; the attending physician, may screen for gestational diabetes on the first prenatal visit. Typically, screening test are given between twenty-four and twenty-eight weeks of the pregnancy. Doctors may administer the initial glucose challenge test, a syrupy glucose solution is given to drink, while one hour later, a blood test is given to measure the blood sugar level.
Also given is the follow-up glucose tolerance testing; for this test an overnight fast is required, and a higher concentration of glucose drank, then the blood. If there are at least two, of the three-blood sugar readings are, higher than the normal values already established for each hour; a diagnosis of gestational diabetes will made. Diabetes is a very serious illness, it cannot be treated, and depending on the individuals’ own need; once the diagnosis has been made, and the needs of the person with diabetes; has been assessed, then a well-considered regime is then developed for the individuals’ own specific need(s) and circumstances, will be implemented and put into motion. And with the expectancy of other problems closely associated with diabetes, to arise; other health care professionals may be asked to give treatment. A Podiatrist, Optometrist, Dietician, and an Endocrinologist, may be essential, as well for a keeping an effective treatment plan. In general, the treatment(s) for diabetes involves/needs, keeping a close watch over blood sugar levels, and most importantly keeping the goals set by the doctor.
Co-existing with a mixture of medications, exercise, and diet. Close attention must be given to; what is eaten, and when it is eaten to forego, minimize, and, or avoid cycles of the “up and down effects” of rapidly changing blood sugar levels, which also may need swift changes in medication dosage(s), especially with insulin.Anyone who shows signs, or has symptoms of being diabetic, should immediately contact their physician and get screened for diabetes, as soon as possible. Some people will not show signs, or have any symptoms, but still, may have a risk factor(s) for diabetes, should still need to be screened, and tested to rule out or, to be diagnosed with having diabetes mellitus.
Testing will allow doctor to diagnosis diabetes early and, allows them to work with their patients on managing diabetes and avoid any unnecessary complication(s).