The development process of organization theory shows that the change of management thought and research methods, research experiences from a focus on “things” to “man” of the research, development and research to the people and things both in methodology to empirical research from normative research. The formation and development of organization theory is the result of human understanding of organization and its activities, so that people can consciously apply this theory to effectively manage organizations to adapt themselves to organizational activities. The inadequacy of organizational theory lies in the lack of a unified conceptual framework and core content.
Some scholars have different opinions about whether organizational theory is a subject or not.From the perspective of theoretical development, in the early twentieth Century, organizational theory generally went through three stages: traditional organization theory, behavioral science organization theory and system management theory. The traditional organizational theory was prevalent in the 10~30 years of twentieth Century. It focuses on the analysis of the organization structure and general principles of organization and management.
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The research contents mainly involve organization’s goals, division of labor, coordination, power relations, responsibilities, organization efficiency, authorization, management scope and level, centralization and decentralization. Representative: put forward the bureaucracy theory M. Weber, put forward the general management theory H. Farrell, put forward the scientific management theory F.W. Taylor.
Although Taylor’s scientific management is mainly applicable to enterprise organization, its organizational management thought profoundly affects the research of administrative organization management and administrative theory. In addition, the American scholar L. Urwick and spread the traditional organization and comprehensive theory views and ideas, expand the influence of the traditional organization theory. Organizational theory refers to the theory that human affairs are arranged in a certain form in the activities of social organization.
Organization is composed of more than two people, in order to achieve common goals, in a certain form to be compiled. With the increasing complexity of social division of labor, the organization activities of human society are becoming more and more diverse, such as administrative organizations, business and business organizations, cultural and educational organizations. Introductions of organizational theory