The disorder and is diagnosed in children above

The human brain
consists of  about 90% of water. It is
roughly categorised into 3 parts: Cerebrum, Cerebellum and brain stem1. The
basic functions of these parts are to sense, control various activities such as
controlling secretion and maintaining the entire body function. Cerebrum, deals
with emotions, movement initiation, consciousness awareness of sensation.
Cerebellum, deals with muscle movement and balance maintenance. Brain stem,
controls heart regulation, respiration, and hormone secretion2. The brain is
most important part of the human body any kind of imbalance leads to various
diseases which can be long term or short term duration, curable or non-curable
depending on its severity. Some of the diseases related to brain are: Autism
Spectrum Disorder, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia,   cerebral palsy, etc.

 

Autism is a
Greek word which means “isolated self”, Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is a
brain disorder which is related to inability to understand emotions and
gestures, social awkwardness, disconnected to people in surroundings, failure
to read or write or speak fluently, repeatable behaviour6, etc., are the
symptoms of this disorder. This is usually a non-curable disorder and is
diagnosed in children above 1year old. It’s a disease related to cerebrum. It is
related to “Spectrum” of symptoms, level of severity, disability and skills. It
can be considered as a disorder rather than a disease; its diagnosis is
difficult in today’s time which is encouraging researchers in Signal
Processing, Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence domain. This disorder is
increasing at an exponential rate. According to reports of April 2017, by
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), 1 in every 68 child 3 is
detected with Autism with boys to girls ratio being 4.5:1 2. Figure 1 shows
the statistics of ASD patients of various years according to the survey
conducted by Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM). ASDs
begin in childhood and tend to persist into adolescence and adulthood. While
some people with ASD can live independently, others have severe disabilities
and require life-long care and support. Globally,
access to services and support for people with ASD is inadequate. IT can be
categorised into three types: Low functioning Autism (LFA) or mild autism,
Medium functioning Autism (MFA) or moderate autism and High functioning Autism
(HFA) or severe autism 1. 

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