THE EFFECTS OF MARKET ORIENTATION ON THE SERVICE QUALITY OF PRIVATE BANKING INDUSTRYIN PALEMBANGby:Diah NatalisaIsnurhadiHerianto PuspowarsitoDavid PE SaerangCorresponding email: [email protected]: 62 8127124837Faculty of Economics, University of Sriwijaya, Palembang, IndonesiaIn response to the world??™s more competitive banking industry, private banks in Palembang focus more on professionalism, customers??™ satisfaction, increased teamwork, and market-oriented performance. To implement those four principles, the management team of these private banks are committed to run their banking activities on good governance, to comply with government regulations, to improve their human resources and to develop more valuable products and services that are intended to satisfy customers??™ needs. This study is aimed toward identifying how private banks in Palembang set the stages of their market orientation, which stage was dominant, and how this market orientation influenced the quality of their services. A multiple regression analysis was applied in this research. Its dependent variable was service quality (Y) and the independent variable was market orientation; (X) which was further divided in three dimensions: intelligent generation (X1), intelligent dissemination (X2), and responsiveness (X3). The research results show that there is a significant influence of the three independent variables on the service quality provided by the private banks in Palembang.
The dominant dimension of the market orientation was responsiveness.Keywords: Market Orientation Service Quality Private Banking Industry.1.
INTRODUCTION In the global economy, a bank plays a very crucial role. Banks emerge as an institution that is vital in financial traffic in modern economy specifically in distributing and allocating financial resources in a society. Banks function as financial intermediary, intermediating cash surplus institution and cash strap institution.
Banks have been facilitating many transactions in the society by creating the infrastructures and various facilities. Banks have been successful in intermediating various parties in financial world in the form of facilitating exchanges and establishing various sources of funds. (Anam, 2005). Hadad (2005) states that banking system acts as an intermediaries between cash surplus institution and cash strap institution.
Consequently, it will bring intensive interaction between banks as a business entity with clients as users of the services. From the point of view of fund surplus entity, the interaction occurs when fund surplus entities save their funds in the bank in the form of checking account, saving account, deposit account. On the other hand, from the point of view of fund cash strap parties, the interaction occurs when they lend money from bank for specific needs. The interaction between a bank and the bank service users (patrons, hereafter) can occur in other form that is, when the patrons conduct banking service transaction other than lending and saving. These miscellaneous transactions are in the form of fund transfer, incasso, or safe deposit service. Lately, bank services have been developed into new hybrid services which are traditionally nonbanking products such as insurance and mutual fund.
When service is offered to a customer, basically it is a delivery of service value. The value of service as defined by consumers that value this quality in relation between the service value he/she gets and the service given by the competitors. There is a tendency of increased awareness from customers to use service by comparing between service quality that they get with the cost that should be expended. Therefore, it is not uncommon if service providers pay a lot of attention on consumer preference on the value offered when making marketing strategy (Budiarto,2004). The intense competition in banking industry makes financial service companies compete to provide better services to the customers. This policy is very effective in getting new customers and keeping old clients. According to Retnadi (2004) bank service quality in the future will be better as a result of risk heterogeneity facing each bank. In the system of Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan (deposit guaranty institution) a bank risk could easily be detected from the interest charged to the customers.
Because interest rate charged to customers is easily detected, banks will always attempt to increase nonprice aspect in creating differentiation to be able to attract customers. Bank funding strategy in saving-insurance scheme very much depends on internal policy adopted by banks in responding on guaranty system. If a bank decides to participate in saving guaranty, the maximum saving that is guaranteed by the government still plays a vital role. If a particular bank has good performance and a good customer services, there is high possibility this bank will introduce saving-insurance scheme for a relatively small deposit with small premium. In such situation, the bank will certainly adopt a best service-oriented strategy in order to be able attract customers though the interest given to them is low. On the other hand, for banks with low reputation and low quality customer services, the participation of these banks in the saving-insurance scheme for maximum amount is clearly a choice that must be taken even if they will pay high premium. There is an important fact that once a bank participates in the saving-insurance scheme, it will possess an exclusive right to expose its participation in the scheme as promotion mean for distinguishing its from other banks that do not participate in the same scheme. On the other hand, for banks that have good customer services but with high risk (for instance, high non performing loan index) these banks should implement full guaranty LPS by paying high premium without compromise in their services if they want to keep their customers from switching to other banks with low risk and high quality customer services (Retnadi, 2004).
Facing the more intense competition including in the banking world, private banking industry Palembang (Table 1) promote four general basic pillars in managing a bank namely professionalism, customer satisfaction, improving collaboration and market oriented performance. To support these four basic pillars, bank managements commit to run the banking business based on good governance and follow the rules, increase service quality and improve human resource management and develop new products and services suitable to the customers??™ needs that based on results, value and usefulness.Table 1List of Private Banks in Palembang|No. |Bank Name |Bank Ownership |Bank Status ||1.
|Bank Artha Graha |Private, National |bank devisa ||2. |Bank Buana Indonesia, Tbk |Private, National |bank devisa ||3. |Bank Bukopin |Private, National |bank non devisa ||4. |Bank Central Asia, Tbk |Private, National |bank devisa ||5. |Bank Century |Private, National |bank non devisa ||6. |Bank Ekonomi Raharja |Private, National |bank non devisa ||7.
|Bank Haga |Private, National |bank non devisa ||8. |Bank Internasional Indonesia |Private, National |bank devisa ||9. |Bank Lippo |Private, National |bank devisa ||10. |Bank Mega, Tbk |Private, National |bank devisa ||11.
|Bank NISP, Tbk |Private, National |bank devisa ||12. |Bank Panin |Private, National |bank devisa ||13. |Bank Permata, Tbk |Private, National |bank devisa ||14. |BTPN |Private, National |bank non devisa |Source: Indonesian Central Bank, 2006 From the economic point of view, Palembang is a strategic zone in development of banking industry. There are a number of large companies operating in Palembang such as PT. Pusri, PT. Pertamina, PT. Semen Baturaja etc.
which export and import that are dealing with banking services. According to Indonesian Central Bank, Palembang branch, the development of banking services by government sector and private sector are progressing significantly. Both saving account and time deposit account increase significantly as displayed in Table 2.Table 2Saving Position in Rupiah and Foreign Currency in Palembang(in million rupiah)|Activities | |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005/Mei ||A. IDR | |6.840.557 |8.356.
708 |9.774.050 |9.352.284 || a. Checkng |- nominal |1.138.139 |1.
487.931 |1.716.825 |1.
205.597 || Account |- account |17 |20 |20 |20 || b. Time |- nominal |3.183.039 |3.567.089 |3.860.
525 |4.215.569 || Deposit |- bilyet |52 |43 |36 |35 || c. Saving |- nominal |2.519.379 |3.
301.688 |4.196.700 |3.931.
118 || |- account |819 |804 |773 |777 || | | | | | ||B. Val. Asing | |650.525 |742.252 |701.755 |665.657 || a.
Checking |- nominal |358.854 |461.057 |506.322 |509.266 || Account |- account |5 |4 |4 |4 || b.
Time |- nominal |291.671 |280.835 |195.132 |156.
110 || Deposit |- bilyet |1 |1 |1 |1 || c. Saving |- nominal |- |360 |301 |281 || |- account |- |0,011 |0,014 |0.017 |Source: Indonesian Central Bank, Palembang Branch, 2006. The increasing use of banking services showed in Table 2 indicates that the economic activities are high.
Banking industry should exploit the situation to see the market orientation needed to fulfill all banking activities to gain profit by maintaining high quality services by providing new manual or digital banking products. One particular example is e-banking. E-banking has given an opportunity for banks and other finance institutions in accelerating growth and progress. Banking industry could develop their markets which are formerly limited by time and space. Conventional transaction activities such as fund withdrawing can be done timeless and spaceless. The ease of development of customer service is possible by implementing e-Banking.
With e-Banking, the extension of operational area occurs without physical attendance. Beginning with ATM, phone banking to Internet banking. BRI, for example, focus more on ATM service and phone banking. The dramatic increase in phone cell use make BRI choose this service rather than Internet banking. Application of e-Banking has change national banking industry borderless. This dynamics push the birth of various regulations and laws to accommodate the development. Although many efforts have been done by banking industry to increase customer service quality such as technology and security in fulfilling market demand, there are still many weaknesses emerging from those developments. Wirjadi (2004) said that the main factors that determine the success or tha failures of a bank are: (1) service quality (2) speed and place of distribution available to customers.
These factors specifically involve bank capability in developing and implementing latest banking technology and recruiting, training and placing the right personal at right function.2. PROBLEM This study aims to investigate how large the effect of market implementation on the service quality of private bank in Palembang.Research Objectives1. To investigate the effect of market orientation on service quality.
2. To investigate the market orientation factor that has dominant impact on service quality.3.
LITERATURE REVIEW Kohli and Jaworski (1990) defined market orientation as the wide implementation of market knowledge about the current needs of customers and future needs of customers with their spread of the knowledge to the whole departments and related organization. In line with the above definition, Kohli dan Jaworski (1990) explained that the creation of intelligent generation is a measure that not only to observe the needs and the choices of consumers but also to analyze how consumers could be influenced by various factors such as government rules, technology, competitors and other market forces. The observation of the activities on market condition belongs to intelligent generation. Intelligent dissemination involves communication and knowledge information transfer to the whole departments and all personals in the organization both by formal or non formal channel. Responsiveness is an activity to response to the knowledge that is generated and disseminated. Various formats of market orientation have been discussed and researched in latest marketing literature with various stresses.
There is a commitment amongst researchers about a positive correlation between market orientation and service quality, sales increase, production success, income increase, labor performance, business objective achievement, group collaboration, employee organizational commitment and marketing innovation (Ruekert, 1992; Jaworski dan Kohli, 1990, Atuahene-Ginla, 1996). However, there is a need for equality studies that focus on organization orientation to compare the empirical findings and play important role on the progress of marketing theory (Hubbard and Amstrong, 1994). Most of the market orientation researches have been conducted in developed countries. Developed countries are able to monitor the competitive tendency, assess consumer needs and answer strategically to change market environment.
There is an assumption that an economy that is under companies with market orientation so the needs will increase for product and service above its target (Kinsey, 1988). In another words, there is a possibility that knowing market orientation could not be done with standardized way on a company. Kohli dan Jaworski (1990) said that market orientation should be fulfilled in the organization with the objective to place marketing experience effectively. Businessmen and academicians describe market orientation as a development of market intelligence pertaining current and future consumer needs and knowledge dissemination to other departments by considering its response level. Market orientation perspective that refers to the organization habits by recognizing organization direction to deliver information to the leader and to value customer is basis for market orientation. On this perspective, it can be concluded that there three components of behaviors namely consumer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination. These three behavioral components have equal important meaning. Ruekert (1992), Kohli dan Jaworski (1990) contended that market orientation is a way for manager decision to fulfill market demand.
The measurement of service quality variable that is widely used in service industry is SERVQUAL method. However, this technique is criticized by many researchers. Newman (2001) said that the main problem of this method is the trust on the two scale that is : the one that measure perception and expectation while one scale is enough because it is simpler and easier to understand and more effective. The use of expectancy-performance method as a measurement for SERVQUAL in bank industry is questioned by Babakus dan Mongold (1992); and by Cronin dan Taylor (1992).
Reliability and validity formulation on scoring of SERVQUAL is queried by Brown, Churchill and Peter (1993). Furthermore, Karatepe et. al (2005) critized the weaknesses of SERVQUAL in the bank sector because some researches failed to implement and have psychometric problem with five dimensional structure of SERVQUAL, specifically for countries with different cultures. Hence, the use of the SERVQUAL demension has not been proven universally. Narver and Irisan in Subramanian and Gopalakrishna (1999) conducted a study on 162 manufacturers and service companies in India.
They found positive relationship between market orientation and performance parameters such as income growth, profit, service quality, and effectiveness in operational cost control. On the other hand, Anwar (2003) who conducted a study on bank managers in Brunei found six factors that influenced market orientation that developed from information development, information dissemination, and the level of responsibility namely: 1) consumer focus, 2) strategy implementation, 3) information usage, 4) new service form, 5) competitor focus and 6) environment influenced focus. The result of the study showed that all factor have high validity and reliability score of 0.46 to 0.82. The relationship between market orientation and service quality in the banking industry in Western Sumatera, Indonesia reveals that there is a positive relationship between information development, informationdissemination and response level toward service quality at confident level of 0,05. The coefficient of those three factors toward service quality are 59,6 percent (Puspowarsito, 2005).
3.1 Conceptual Framework The form of the influence of market orientation that consists of knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination and response level toward service quality is illustrated in Figure 2 as follows:Figure 2 Research Conceptual Framework Note: X1 : Independent Variable Intelligent Creation; X2 : Independent Variable Intelligent Dissemination: X3 : Independent Variable Responsiveness: Y : Dependent Variable Service Quality; RX1Y : The degree of the influence of X1 on Y RX2Y : The degree of the influence of X2 on Y RX3Y : The degree of the influence of X3 on Y RX1X2X3 : The degree of the influence of X1, X2 and X3 on Y3.2 Hypotheses:The hypotheses of this study are generated as follows:H1. Market orientation has positive relationship with service quality.H2.
Responsiveness has the largest influence on service quality.4. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLING This study employs a conclusive design comprising descriptive and causal research methods to investigate the effect of market orientation consisting of three independent variables namely (Intelligent Generation, X1), (Intelligent Dissemination, X2) and (Responsiveness, X3) on dependent variable of service quality (Y).
The object of this study is all private banks located in Palembang Municipal comprising 14 private banks. The population consists of all branch managers and other top managers of each private bank. Samples are taken as follows:1. All the branch managers of the 14 private banks are taken. 2.
For each branch two top managers of that branch are taken (2 top managers x 14 branches = 28 samples).Overall there are 42 samples are used in this study. The instrument to measure market orientation variable uses Markor (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). The indicator of service quality variable uses modified indicator of Karetepe et. al, 2005.
Market orientation variable consist of Intelligent Generation (X1), Intelligent Dissemination (X2) and Responsiveness (X3). On the other hand, service quality variable is measured by using SERVQUAL (Interaction, Empathy and Reliability). The measurement of the two variables uses Likert scale with 1 ??“ 5 intervals as follows: very agree is graded 5, agree 4, doubt 3, disagree 2, and very disagree 1. The dimension and the indicators are illustrated in Table 3.Table 3Operasionalization of Variable Based on Dimension and Indicator|No |Variable |Dimension |Indicator |# of Item ||1. | (Intelligent |1. Research |1.
Market research |1 || |Generation, X1) |2. Customer demand |1. Customer demand change |2 || | |3. survey |1. product quality survey |3 || | |4. Change and evaluation |1. Technology and Rule Change |4 || | | |2. Change examination | || | | | |5 ||2.
| (Intelligent |1. Planning |1. Staff meeting |6 || |Dissemination, X2) | | |7 || | |2. Action |1. Important incident |8 || | | | |9 || | |3. Data and Competition |1.
Service satisfaction Data | || | | |2. Competition Action | ||3. |(Responsiveness, X3) |1. Customer Need Response |1. Concern toward customers want |10 || | | | | || | |2. Product and Service |1. Product development endeavour | || | |Inspection | |11 || | | |1.
Change in bank environment | || | |3. Change |2. Product importance and service | || | | |1. Complain response |12 || | | |1. Timeliness | || | | | |13 || | | | | || | |4.
Customer problem | | || | | | |14 || | |5. Time | | || | | | |15 ||4 |(Service Quality, Y) |1. Service environment |1. Environment condition |16,17,19 || | | |2. Staff appearance |18 || | |2. Interaction | | || | | |1.
Response power, attitude,expertise |20,21,22,23 || | | |and trust |24,25 || | | |2. Comprehensiveness and customer | || | | |service | || | |3. Empathy |1. Queing time and customer claim |27,28,29 || | | |2. Special attention | || | | |1. Error level |30,31 || | | |2. Customers confidential | || | | |3. Information and customer financial |32,33 || | |4.
Reliability |activity | || | | | |34,35 || | | | | |Source: Modified Markor (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990) and Service Quality (Karetepe et.al, 2005). Data were collected by directly distributing questionnaires to branch managers and managers of private banks in Palembang city. The questionnaires were filled and returned by the managers according to the time set up. Hypotheses were tested using factor analysis and multivariate analysis of multiple regressions.5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All items in the questionnaires are subjected to validity test. Table 5 in the appendix shows that all items of service quality valid at the conventional level of 5%.
Reliability test is also performed to confirm the reliability of the items in the questionnaires. The measurement of reliability using Cronbach Alpha for knowledge stage, knowledge dissemination, response level, and service quality are 0.8 which confirms that all variables are having high level of reliability. (See appendix).Regression Analysis To analyze the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable, multivariate analysis in the form of multiple regression analysis is employed. The result is presented in Table 4.
Table 4 Result of Regression Analysis|Variabel |Coefficient |Comnputed -t |Sign.t || | | | ||Constant |0,862 |3,722 |0,001 ||Intelligent Creation |0,246 |3,994 |0,000 ||Intelligent Dissemination |0,181 |3,787 |0,001 ||Responsiveness |0,367 |5,438 |0,000 || ||R square |0,839 |Durbin Watson |1,649 ||Adjusted R Square |0,826 | | ||Standar error |0,238 | | || | | | ||F |65.868 | | ||Sign F |0,000 | | | Source: processed primary data Table 4 shows F value is 65.868 which is significant at 0,000. It means that all independent variables in the model together significantly influent the dependent variable at the conventional level of 1%. T-value also shows that individually each independent variable significantly affect the dependent variable. Overall the model is very good with the coefficient of determination (R2).
The R2 of 0,839 indicates that 83.9% variation of the service quality at private bank in Palembang could be explained by knowledge creation, knowledge dissemination, and response level. Competition amongst banks in Palembang is more intense whereby more produsens involve in fulfilling consumer wants and needs. Accordingly, every bank should prioritize market orientation on customer service quality as main obdjective. This is reflected in the banks??™ mission which include customer satisfaction as the main mission.
Mahmoeddin (1996) states that good service is one condition for bank to succeed in collecting fund from customers, selling service as much as possible which in turn will generate profit as much as possible. Engel dalam Tjiptono (2002) say that customer satisfaction is a post-sale evaluation where chosen alternatives at least similar or above customer expectation, on the other hand dissatisfaction emerge when result does not confirm with expectation. In conclusion, good, familiar, quick, and accurate services is a principal that every bank clerks must own that give prime customer service. The better the service given to the customers, the higher the customers satisfaction and also the higher the customers trust on the banks.
The Effect of Intelligent Creation on Customer Service at Private Bank in PalembangIntelligent creation has significant influence on customer service at private banks in Palembang city at the statistical conventional level of 1%. All private banks in Palembang city have conducted internal market researches and they are responsive in detecting the product preference changes related to service to the customers. Banks have interacted with customers where banks employees have been fasilitated with enough knowledge to response on the problem occurs. Banks employees serve customers politely, striving to get information first hand through their teller where they are experienced to stimulate customers??™ trust that creating good relationship between bank employees and customers.
Moreover, customers should be motivated to entrust their funds at the bank, other than expecting to gain more profits and expecting that their funds are safe. This is in line with Maslow motivation theory with hyrarchical needs consisting of physiologic, security, social, and self esteem. Security need of every person is clear and very general amongst people. In addition, Gellerman dalam Newman (2002) says that everyone has want to be free from hazards on their lives such as accident, war, and economic uncertainty. In short, it can be concluded that every individual and group need feeling of security given by banks to their customers.The Effect of Intelligent Dissemination on Service Quality at Private Banking Sector in PalembangAfter recognizing customers needs, a bank should disseminate the knowledge in order to increase service quality in the private banking sector in Palembang. The finding shows that knowledge dissemination influence service quality significantly at the conventional level 5%.
Management team of the banks have spares their time to discuss with other departments about what people need in the future. When important matter arise, all internal bank team respond quickly in relieving customers complain and dissatisfaction. Competition amongt private banks is clearly seen in this study. For example, when a department in a particular bank find something important in other banks, the department of this bank respond quickly and communicate and disseminate the information in order to prepare new knowledge to face the competitors. In order to get and maintain customers, private banks create environment and atmosphere as ideal as customers needs such as big, modern and beautiful building with nice interior. Bank employees always wear nice attires, are courtious and with good apperarance.
Service quality is increased by not letting customers wait too long in ques. Bank employees are willing to listen customers complain by giving customers special attention individually such as say hello or asking the customers condition. Bank employees are also willing to help customers in solving their problems by giving advices on new products with their advantages compared to similar products from competitors.The Effect of Responsiveness on Service Quality at Private Banking Sector in PalembangResponse level has the most dominant influence on service quality than another two independent variables in the model. The beta coefficient is 0.367 which means an increase of one unit of response level will increase service quality as much as 36.%.
The dominant of market orientation proves that response level directly relate to customers where banks tend to respond quickly toward changes that customers want on product together with it service. Bank management conduct examination periodically in order to develop product and service with the purpose to aline with customer needs. However, other variable is still needed in increasing service quality. Together with market orientation variable, they substantially influence service quality. Product and service offered in private bank industry clearly indicates that it defend more on the real market needs rather than internal needs. Customer claim almost always is responded by bank management seriously. Moreover, bank employees always keep customer financial secreet and give information about financial activity accurately. The discussion above indicates that intelligent creation, intelligent dissemination and response power affect service quality based on F test and t test so the decision taken accept H1 that is: intelligent creation, intelligent dissemination and response power significantly affect service quality.
In addition, market orientation dimension that dominantly affect service quality is response level consistent with the hypothesis H2. The finding of this study is in line with Subramanian and Gopalakrishna (1999) which found that there was positive relationship between market orientation and the parameters such as service quality and effectiveness in cost control. However, in this study performance indicator in its relation with operational cost is not discussed.6. CONCLUSION Intelligent creation, intelligent dissemination and resposiveness have positive influence on the service quality at private banks in Palembang city. The market orientation that dominantly affect the service quality at the private banks in Palembang city is response level that have direct connection with customers.Limitations and Future Research Agenda This study falls into cross-sectional category whereby data are collected in a certain point of time with the research object limited on private banks in Palembang city. This narrow scope causes difficulty in generalization of the conclusion.
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I. Nomor 70 Tahun 1992 tentang Izin PerbankanKeputusan Presiden R.I. Nomor 12 Tahun 1998 tentang Perbankan———————–Service Quality( Y )Responsiveness( X3 )R X1, YR X2, YR X3, YIntelligent Dissemination( X2 )Intelligent Creation( X1)R X1,2,3,Y