Running Head: THE ENGA CULTURE The Enga Culture [Name of the writer][Name of the institution]AbstractIn this paper, we try to focus on the Enga people of New Guinea. In this paper, we try to focus and identify on their Kinship, Social Org, economy, and social change.
Throughout this research paper, we have learned that the primary mode of subsistence (how a culture makes a living) impacts many other aspects of cultural behavior and has been an effective way to organize thoughts and studies about culture.The Enga CultureThesis Statement Enga tribe is horticultural and a “paritineal” line. The line of descent comes from the male??™s side and is bought by bride wealth.Introduction The Enga culture is a part of the Horticultural.
There is a variety of aspects that will be discussed, such as kinship organizations, social organizations, gender relations and the wars and crops throughout the tribe members. This will cover a large span of time from ancient times to the way of life for current Enga tribe. This should explain the culture of the Enga tribe for a better understanding of how they live. However, Enga is also considered being the land that they all live in records show that the Enga tribes date back no further than 1806, but have likely been present in this area for a very lot longer than that. The data that have been collected is a good source of information; however, it is only for a short time period.
Ecological studies show most of the information was from the recall of older tribe members and has little weight (Wohlt, P.B. 2004).Background The initial Enga tribe was located north and east of the southern highlands in rugged terrain of Panguna, New Guinea. There are several thousand communities located in the country. They have stayed in this area all of their lives.
This providence is approximately the size of California, about 462,840 sq km (US Department of State, 2010, October 8, Geography). The estimated population in 2008 was 6.5 million, with a growth rate of 2% 2005 to 2010. English is an official language of the country, one of the three, but there are about 860 different languages spoken in New Guinea (US Department of State, 2010, October 8, People). With the limited records, it is estimated that the land was first used for the pandanus fibers, then as a gardening site and finally as the permanent residence (Wohlt, P.B., 2004).DiscussionKinship Genealogy is one of the three ways to be able to track the kinship as an accurate database; this was one of the best ways to figure out the past.
The kinship organization of this tribe is of patrilineal descent. Big men of the tribe could persuade other tribe member to give their food and goods to him for distribution at ceremonial meetings. This shows other members not of their tribe, that they work as one and agree to what the Big Man says or does. The Enga tribe feels that everyone around them is enemies. This is why working together is so very important to show the universal front. The rights to land are inherited strictly as public knowledge; however, the shift from agnatic to non-agnatic has increased. Big men can provide the complete lineage of all the land owners of his tribe (Filer, 1999). The bride wealth gift is normally about 18 pigs plus a few other items; however, this may vary largely to be based on the man??™s family wealth.
This compensation for the loss of the bride and will in return at a later time receive pigs. The acceptance of bride wealth is distributed by the bride??™s lineage then her mother??™s lineage, grandmother on her father??™s side and her grandmother??™s, from her mother??™s lineage. These are the lines in which the bride may not marry. The giving of bride wealth helps for bonds with the in-laws and better networking for the men. The men of the tribe married about the age of 25 and continued to have children until about the age of 55 (Wohlt, P.
B., 2004). The women normally married at the age of 18 and continued to bear children until approximately the age of 45 (Wohlt, P.B., 2004).
Based off the current findings the time between births was approximately 3.8 years, so this was estimated for the past (US Department of State, October 8, Genealogy). 80% of all tribe men lived with the father??™s residence, patrilocality.
The other 20% would be “virilocality”, living in the same area as the husband??™s family or neolocativy, a couple residing alone. Divorce among bride wealth societies is almost nonexistence. The reason behind this is that the bride??™s family would need to give back the gift received if divorce was occurring. This would be a difficult task since the bride wealth would have been distributed to all the kin entitled to a portion. The kin of the bride may have already used the gifts as their bride wealth and will make it almost impossible for the bride to leave, which keeps her in a marriage she does not want to be.
One of the only reasons the marriage would be dissolved would be for infertility. If the bride is, in fact, infertile the bride??™s family may offer another female of the tribe to avoid returning the bride wealth, because the bride did not live up to her end of the marriage agreement. Marriage for these tribes must be done outside of one??™s lineage or clan.
Enga tribes commonly have Polygyny among their big men. Polygyny is the act of one man being married to two or more wives. The women of these marriages are responsible for the cultivation and the more wives a man have the better opportunity for wealth. The wives also try to acquire pigs for the man to have an appropriate feast. With these men having more than one bride, they secure bonds with the brides families, which is very helpful in war times (Wohlt, P.
B., 2004).Social Organization The social life styles of the Enga tribe in Papua, New Guinea are studied to find out if ???wantoks??™???, the people that performs the similar sort of job or a person who is from the same ethical background. According to Enga tribe leisure time is a large portion of the working day. Papua is a major mining town and employed about 4000 works at the peak of its success and according to the personnel records kept by Bougainville Copper Limited (BCL), 160 of those employees were of the Enga tribe but consisted of only male workers (Wohlt, P.
B., 2004). The social groups that were defined are the ???Pioneers???, which were the first immigrants into the country, which totaled about nineteen. These old timers, as they were called, looked for manual labor, to be able to provide for the family.
The next group is the ???Followers??? these were the newcomers and were look for help from the Pioneers. The ???Elite??? is another social group which is thought to have been the twenty or thirty some agers. They had an education background, some were college graduates and others were grade twelve or grade ten graduates. This was a small section of the social groups.
The last group were ???Squatters??? who were people not employed by BCL, the mining company. This was a major portion of the Enga population, but most did not have marketable skills to help in securing a job Wohlt, P.B., 2004). There were several social gathering occasions but the ones that will be discussed are Sports and Games, Church Attendance and Routine Visiting.
Economy and Social Change Sports and Games in recreational facilities were used by the BCL employees located in Panguna and Loloho, which were provided by company for their leisure time actives. Rugby was a very popular sport among the Enga community. There were leagues, which mostly engaged the followers and elite men of the community. The sport became so popular that the providence joined the North Solomon??™s League (NSL) with four other teams from the other providences. The games were played on Sundays, and most of the Enga players were from BCL and the elite, white collar workers were the only ones on the team.
However, the older generation typically played pool by in recreation centers or outside whenever they had any free time. Pool would be played for fun or serious competition, and partners were chosen on a fist come first serve basis while playing with others from the coast. Private activities are normally performed inside the home of the Enga people and were done with the immediate family this differs from the Social activities, which are done in public places and with other people (Golub, 2001). Attending church is the next activity brings different Enga members together where they normally would not be in other social settings. Tribe members even had diverse discussions after the services. Services normally only last an hour or two, where local people can meet people from a different province and chat. This is an opportunity to talk to other people who believe in the same religious believes as you do. Some people may say that the way the tribes live is a cult like and have been reviewed as to whether it is or not.
The information shows that there is a creative way to approach the Christianity and does its own rituals and ceremonies. The last social activity is routine visiting is another thing that the members of the tribe do. Most of the visiting is done on the weekends away from work and between friends and relatives. Some if the individual goes to visit family in other providences or they come to visit them in Panguna. If, trips to other provinces happen this is normally for business purposes. Most visits to other tribes are rare if it happens at all. Sweet potatoes are the most important crops for of the Enga tribe; they also grow bananas and yams by the slash and burn cultivation.
Some of the mounds that are cultivated for use can be up to nine feet in diameter. These mounds are dug up, and when the mound starts to decompose the planting cycle begins again. The Enga tribe does little hunting because of deforestation and has to rely on pigs for the protein they provide. “Waddell” provided from his study that approximately 49 percent of the crops go to feed the pigs (Wohlt, P.
B., 2004). The Enga diet has less than two percent of total fat and animal protein for their whole diet; however, about 90 percent of the Enga diet is sweet potatoes. During the normal cultivation, of the land is 4 years for grassland, 4 years in crops and once a generation there is wet land where the land is left unseeded (Wohlt P.B., 2004). In the fall, September and October frost forces the tribe to move to lower elevations, and they are welcomed by kin, which will feed them also provide them with gardens to fend for themselves (Imbun, 1999). The male gender of the Enga tribe is the dominant gender.
The males are the ones who have to give bride price to the future in-laws. The men are the holders of the land, and the kinship lineage is from the male??™s side. The function of the woman is to gather the crops that are being grown by the men and to bare their children. Even now the male is still the dominant figure in the tribes. Currently in the provinces there are many wars between the different tribes and these tribes are finding refuge in the Enga province, so this seems that the great commodore within the Enga tribe still is among the tribe members of today (BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, 2007). Among the major warfare in Enga, there had been many changes during the 300 year period from when the sweet potatoes were introduced to the modern high power weapons. There is also a lot of gun smuggle into the province.
(BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, 2005)There is also major violence in the two provinces of Enga and Southern Highlanders, there is no control by the government that is in place right now, but there is a vast need for control. According to Enga people illness and death are caused by the dead spirit of ancestors. Since, these deaths are caused by the bride??™s ancestors the husband??™s family feels they deserve compensation for her death. This is very similar to the bride wealth but lowered by one generation to the deceased (Wohlt P.
B., 2004). Initially the mapping on the gardens, which is the land owned by the people, was done with hand held compasses and tape.
Most transfers of land are not normally contested unless there is misinformation by the younger men and immigrants to the tribe. Some discrepancies??™ are ongoing from one generation to the next. Slash and burn was the type of cultivating that was done by the tribe, which consisted of clearing the smaller trees, burning all brush and removed all stumps (Wohlt P.
B., 2004). Around the age of 18, the male members of the tribe begin to help relatives clear the land for the crops. The gardening work done in the beginning was performed with stone axes. There was a great need for firewood so after killing the tree and waiting for it to fall some of the wood was used by the tribe. The men of the tribes would normally clear the gardens until the age of 50 then his sons, daughters, spouses and suitors would clear the garden in him name. With steel axes being used in present time, they are much more efficient and seem to affect the help that is provided by younger tribe members to the older generation of the tribe (Jackson, 2002).
Conclusion In conclusion, the Enga tribe is horticultural and a “paritineal” line. The line of descent comes from the male??™s side and is bought by bride wealth. The social actives that are enjoyed by the BCL mine members are pool, rugby gambling, routine visits and attending church, which most of the Enga tribe is of the Catholic descent. The major crop Enga members are sweet potatoes, but they also grow bananas and yams, however, the sweet potatoes are feed to the pigs for the tribe??™s protein intake.
The gender relations are much defined the male gender is a very dominant presence in the tribe. This is probably one of the reasons that war is in the provinces. Gardening was the way of life for the tribe members and was the slash and burn clearing of the fields to help grow new crops to keep people alive.ReferencesBBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, (2011), Papua New Guinea Highlands police war on gun smuggling, Retrieved on 8 Oct, 2011 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebdid=819970451&sid=9&Fmt=3&clientId=74379&RQT=309&VName=PQDFiler, Colin, ed. (1999), Dilemmas of Development: The Social and Economic Impact of the Porgera Gold Mine, Journal of Canberra: Asia-Pacific Press.
Golub, Alex. (2001), Gold Positive: A Brief History of Porgera 1930-1997, Journal of Madang: Kristen Press.Imbun, Benedict. (1999), Industrial Employment Relations in the Papua New Guinea Mining Industry: With Special Reference to the Porgera Mine, Journal of Waigani: University of Papua New Guinea Press.Jackson, Richard. (2002), In Search of the Serpent??™s Skin: The Story of the Porgera Gold Project, Journal of Port Moresby, PNG: Placer Niugini Ltd.
Wohlt, P. B. (2004), Descent Group Composition and Population Pressure in a Fringe Enga Clan, Papua New Guinea, Retrieved on 8 Oct, 2011 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebdid=9096512&Fmt=3&clientId=74379&RQT=309&VName=PQD.