The Estimate the size of the vehicle passing

The aim of this report is to discuss the (traffic signal vehicle counter and speed detector) project. Initially, the objective of this project is to design a system
that can detect the size and speed of vehicles passing through a junction, to achieve this aim the project will use an Arduino Uno micro-controller along with an
ultra-sonic sensor to investigate the activities at the junction. 

 

The project will consist of two ultrasonic
sensors that will be used to consider the size and speed of the moving vehicle. These two sensors will be placed apart at a specific distance
approximately 30 cm, once programmed the sensors can detect any moving vehicles passing
by the junction and based on the information retrieved by the sensors the size and speed of the vehicle can be determined. There are various types of ultrasonic sensors available
to use some examples are the DYP ME007Y and the HC-SR04. Thus, some sensors have a cone of detection this could
enable the sensors to interfere with each other, a feasible solution may be to
use an ultrasonic sensor that can transmit and receive in a straight line.

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The project will also
consist of an Arduino Uno containing an 8-bits AVR Micro-Controller (Atmel
ATmega382P-PU) this would be programmed via USB with the Arduino high level C
language. Once the program has been written into the micro-controller’s memory,
the chip can be removed and inserted into the bread board.

1.1    
List of objectives

·        
Understand how ultrasonic sensor works

·        
Understand how two sensors work & how they
interfere

·        
Estimate the size of the vehicle passing
by the system

·        
Measure the speed of the vehicle

1.2    
Possible Additional target

·        
Implementation of signage to indicate speeding (buzzer or Liquid crystal
display)

·        
Solar charging facility

·        
Wireless data connections

1.3    
Detailed Investigation

There is a wide range of
technologies and methods that can be used for vehicle detectors. This can range
from Manuel counting to electronics devices such as sensors, lasers, etc. Below
are some of the most common technologies used:

·        
Inductive loop detector: This consists of wires
coils that are installed in the roadway, they measure the change in the
magnetic field when a vehicle passes over them. As the change in the field
occurs, this enables the device to detect the presence of a vehicle and the
speed, length and the weight of the vehicle are retrieved 1.

·        
Piezoelectric sensors are detection
sensors that are installed in the roadway, they work by producing a change in
voltage & current when an axel of a vehicle comes in counter with them, the
piezo sensors are very accurate vehicle detector that are useful for counting and
measuring the speed of the vehicles 1.

·        
Ultrasonic sensor: An ultrasonic sensor uses sound waves to determine the
distance between the sensor and the closest object in its way. At first, the
sensor sends out sounds wave at a specific frequency, it then listens for this
wave to hit the surface of an object and comes back to the receiver. As the
speed of sound is measured at 343m/s, the ultrasonic sensor uses this
information along with the time taken for sending and returning the sound wave
to calculate the distance 2.

 =  

 

 =

·        
There are various
types of ultrasonic sensors such as the HC-SR04, the
UTR-1440K-TT-R and the DYP ME007Y.

1.4    
HC-SR04 Ultrasonic sensor

Figure 1:HC-SR04

1.     
VCC = +5VDC

2.      Trig
= Trigger input of Sensor

3.     
Echo = Echo output of Sensor

4.      GND
= Ground (0V)

1.5    
HC-SR04 Operation

To
initiate the sensor the trig pin is set at 5v for 10µs this enables the
transmitter to send out 8 cycles of ultrasonic wave at 40 kHz. When the wave
hits the surface of an object it is reflected to the receiver and the echo pin
outputs a (5v) pulse of 150µs to 25ms, the pulse width of the echo pulse is used
to calculate the distance 3.

Figure
2:
Timing Diagram of the HC-S0R4

1.6    
DYP ME007Y Ultrasonic sensor

Figure 3: DYP ME007Y

1.     
VCC = +5VDC

2.      Trig
= Trigger input of Sensor

3.     
Echo = Echo output of Sensor

4.      GND
= Ground (0V)

1.7    
DYP ME007Y Operation

This
sensor operates similarly to the HC-SR04, by also using ultrasonic wave to
determine the distance between the sensor and the object. Unlike the HC-SR04
the DYP ME007Y is a transceiver meaning it could transmit and receive the
signal at one interface (straight line), therefore the chances of interference
when these sensors are placed together are reduced 4.

 

1.8    
Schedule  

Week

Plan

1

·        
Meet with the supervisor, discuss
project
·        
Submit Preliminary report with log
book.
·        
Research types of Ultrasonic sensors

2

·        
Design circuit
·        
Design flow-chart
·        
Order part and print data sheet

3

·        
Construct the circuit
·        
Write program with Arduino IDE. 

4

·        
Test the system & identify
problems.
·        
Begin progress report.

5

·        
Meet with supervisor, discuss project
additional targets
·        
Design circuit for Signage to
indicate speeding
·        
Submit progress report with log
book

6

·        
Being in-dept. Research in area
·        
Begin the Final report.

7

·        
Design circuit for solar charging facility if other objectives are
completed

8

·        
Test overall
system 

9

·        
Complete final report
·        
Begin presentation
·        
Practice project demonstration  

10

·        
Submit project report with log book.
·        
Project interview
·        
Project presentation
·        
Project demonstration

 

 

 

 

 

1.9    
Requirement

Requirement
List

Details

Sensor Circuit
 

 
·        
Two Ultrasonic
sensors are required
·        
Detect the size
of the moving vehicle
·        
Detect the speed
of the moving vehicle
 

Front End
 

 
·        
Monitor
displaying sensor data such as distance, speed and size.
·        
Data analysis
using Arduino IDE
 

Output

 
·        
If additional
targets are implemented the circuit could include a buzzer which will make a
quick beep noise to indicate speeding. 

 

1.10  Ethics

·        
The Public and society (benefits to the people): This system provides a lot of benefits to the public
as it reduces the number of accidents, it enables road users to drive at the
same speed making it easier to maneuver through traffic. Most accidents occur
frequently due to higher speeds at junctions, but the implementation of this system
(speed detectors) at roadways encourages people to slow down and drive at the
specified speed.

·        
The product and services: The safety of the people using this product should be
considered as the trust of the road users relies on the system being provided
Therefore, a safe product should be designed by ensuring correct and accurate
measurements are taking carefully during the design process. It is also
critical that the system provides the right services by measuring the speed and
size of vehicles passing through the junction.