Theideologies that percolated in the Philippines are known to be the cause of therise of Nationalism among the Filipino people. These dogma’s introduce to usare considered to be the contributing factor that inspirited the people toclamor the government for change. The spread of communism itself in Asia, andthe lingering effects of wars somehow triggered the adaption and acceptance ofthese foreign ideologies. The introduction of these doctrines created change,through series of attempts that attacks the system which was then viewed as unfair.Peasants then grasp the ideology for the relief and hope, that maybe; thesecould be their chance to enact change and the opportunity to gain access intothe privileges they were deprive to have. Thepromise of classless society has been coined to Communism, backed up by theMarxist ideology.1The doctrines provisions entice the populace that it reaches to the point thatthey engage into arm confrontation with the government in order to effect thechange they sought.
The desperate move then escalated the problem, because theyfounded a group or movement known as “Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas” whichaims to transform the system and eradicate the class distinction.2 The interference of United States in thecountries affairs, the Japanese occupation and the injustices committed by thegovernment buttressed their cause for change. The movement wanted to gainliberty from United States in terms of its intervention politically andeconomically.
Capitalism itself serves as a barrier to itsaims, a counter pat of communist ideology. It is a Profit-based system, whichleaves the workers with few incentives and owners much of gains. Therelationship among the workers and owners is not well established because mostof the time the focus is on its profits. Capitalist is driven by profits,without realizing that gains won’t be meet if workers is omitted in thepicture, workers are often exploited since they are only paid through theirlabors regardless of the type or kind of work, and commonly waged in minimumbases. Theoccurrences of insurgency among the Filipino’s are commonly attribute or linkedto Marxist ideologies. The expression of nationalism is fueled by thesedoctrines wherein peasant choose to raise arms against the government for theythink that the privileges itself is confined only to the people who belong inthe higher strata of social echelon. Accordingly, Marxism defined as “atheory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of socialchange in Western societies”.3 These entails that the Marxist ideologygives emphasis to the less fortunate people, or those who belong in the lowestclass or peasants.
The society is impaired due to the division people that hasbeen linked to the lingering effects of custom-based belief which was then carriedout to ages know as Social Stratification4. The distinction itselfis considered as one of the contributing factors to the rise of nationalism,which is known as class struggle. The society is comprised mostly by peasants, yet theirvoices remained unheard.
The miserable plights of peasants eking out a livingto suffice their families’ hungry stomach, and the slow response of governmentsto their condition were then misconstrued by them, making them feel neglectedand alienated. The atrocities thattranspired during the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos even distance thepopulace towards the government, paved to the formation of Communist Party ofthe Philippines (CCP) on 1968.5 Constant call for changedwas then showed through rallies and social disobedience. Later that year theNew People’s (NPA) army was then founded yielding to the same ideology whichmakes them an armed wing of CCP.6 New People’s Army arecomposed mostly of peasant because of their accessibility due to the enticementof its ideology, there are among the least suspected in the community andlastly the familiarity of the terrains.
Most of them, attack sporadically thegovernment troops, to show the government that they are capable of inflictingharm to the government. Peasants are often called the powerless people yet theyare the most important sector in the social echelon because without them thenation will be destabilized due to the lack of manpower. They play vital rolein the society but their efforts are not even recognize and living in extremepoverty. The lack of support from the government is always been the sentimentsof these people, so we can’t blame them why they opt change sides and goagainst the government. These peasant are armed with guns and inhabits in farflung villages or mountains away from their families; and life they used tohave.
Which clearly connotes that theyare desperate and aggressive enough for change, their intolerance of the systemis showed through a series of attacks. The peasants who used to have a simplelife in rice fields are now known or branded as bandits and terrorist becauseof the hostilities they have done towards the government and the populace. Thererendezvous were away from the communities if possible and meetings are oftenclandestine to avoid being captured by the government troops. The doctrines become the source of knowledge thatawakened the latent consciousness of the people. Jose Maria Sison, a well-knownlawyer who initiated the creation of “Kabataang Makabayan” which aims tointegrate the youth in to the spectrum, encourages the young ones toparticipate in the affairs of the government.7 Sison advocates theparticipation of the youth and wanted them partake in its struggle forliberation towards the elite ruling in the government and end the despoticregime of the Marcoses. As a Universityprofessor it is not hard for him to do so, and the Universities becomes thebastion of rallies and demonstration. The first quarter storm of the 1970marked heavily by a series of youth active demonstrations, which often resultedto atrocities within the two parties.
8 The storm wascharacterized as a dilemma because of the bloodshed, wherein youth had beenshot while demonstrating in order to achieve the cause. The expression of nationalism among peasant ismainly associated to the land they are tilling if it they own it or they arejust working to it. Accordingly, the landless peasants are often expresses itsnationalism in more hostile way due to the experiences they have and the poorliving condition they are in. While those who worked in a privately owned landis quite different because they posed a debt of gratitude towards their landowners for the help they have extended into their workers.
The communist leadersoften find the peasants as subject to the proliferation of these ideologies,taking advantage of their condition and lack of education. What they are tryingto instill into the minds of the peasants is the promise of classless societywherein everyone enjoys and putting an end to poverty. The promise of improvedlifestyle and affluence, perhaps serve as the moving force to gain such supportfrom the masses. The expression of nationalism is greatly shown throughhostility because they think it would be the best thing to do in order toadvance the change they are aspiring. The mobilization of peasantry among therevolution often denotes a characteristic of nationalism although it is exhibitedthrough other means. It is still considered as a form of nationalism becausethe endeavors for liberation from poverty, neo-colonialism of Americas and tostop the ruling elite’s trend in the government were their primary goal.
Communism threat started when the Russia takes heedto the ideologies of Karl Marx, revolts started to takes place spearheaded byVladimir Lenin, followed by his successors Joseph Stalin wherein the primarypurpose is utilize the lands and distribute it to the peasants and as well asindustrialization..9Even the Japanese occupation posed a certain threat, adaptation of China to itsdoctrines and the war in Vietnam are among the few of the factors or reasonsthat cause the spread of communist ideology in Asia particularly thePhilippines. The utilization of manpoweramong the insurgent group during the time of Marcos are also considered to bethe cause, yet, we can also take a look from the abuses committed during hisregime which also fueled the masses to take part to the movements. Theclassifications of people are among the problem which could also be consideredsince; it created a wide gap among the elites and of those who belong in thelower strata.
Disparities are being looked into, through this we could infer intotality, that the flaws are being recognized without acknowledging thelikeness or similarities. The Conrado Balweg’s uprising in Abra; aprovince in Northern Philippines has something to do with the present conditionof his kin’s. Balweg is a member of a minority tribe in Abra, in which struggledto keep up with the constant pressure from the majority group and poverty. Heis a member of a peasant class in which he manages to enroll himself intoseminary and pursued to become a priest.10 He then turn away fromhis vow and move to the mountains and joined the communist group in his aims tostop the injustices and inequity committed by the government towards thesepowerless people. The concept that he adheres is that only few are enjoying theprivileges that must have been supposedly be enjoyed by all.
During his days in the convent he activelyparticipates in the demonstration particularly during the first quarter storm, clamoringthe government for change. He is one of an example of Revolutionary Clergy aswhat John N. Schumacher describes. The arm confrontation is one of the majorexpressions of his nationalism for he believes “the deprived and the oppressed inevitably demand the purposeful andresolute exercise of counter-violence if justice is to beserved and practiced.”11 The need of socialjustice is what makes him change his mind since oppression is evident among thesociety wherein only those who have much can get the justice that must be servedto all. The mobilization of this communist group theCPP-NPA’s is due to their principal objective that is change our governmentsystem into Socialism.
12These aspiration is often neglected by many particularly the elites since itwill crippled their businesses, considering the fact that they are privilegeand the much of the gains circulate within these privilege few. The communistgroup wanted to do away with this system and free the people from the cursed andshackles of poverty. They see socialism as the only solution of the lingeringproblem posed by so many adherences to western thoughts such as capitalism and itsprogenitor. They see the presence of United States as a threat to oursovereignty because of its economic policies which only exhorts us and left uswith residue of its profits or gains.
Accordingly, “Nationalism demands both economic and political independence.It resists and condemns foreign intervention in our internal affairs as well asin the conduct of our foreign policy. The US bases are an unwarrantedderogation of our sovereignty and should be dismantles.”13 The presence of US bases would definitely mean weare subject to annihilation. The United States interference in our internal affairsjeopardizes our sovereignty, and the communist group wanted to oust this personwho causes it so to our lands. The economy itself is being monopolized by foreigncorporations and our own businesses lack support from our government. The policiesare mostly in favor to foreign investors to attract more them in our country. Theexport based system could also means The expression of nationalism of the peasant isaffected by the doctrines introduced to them.
14 They are enticed of itsprovisions and promises that it is the solution to the problem they areexperiences. It will put end poverty and can alleviate their living. More thanthat the expression itself is considered to be harsh by some because theyresort into arm confrontation rather than peaceful means, but makes it nationalistis that they aspiration for change and to free our land from the shackles of foreigners,to liberate us from the foreign intervention. Nationalism is showed in manyways and as to its expression it depends upon onto the person as to how he willshow it. We all have the right to decide what will be the outcome of our futureand it also depends on our hands what will be the course of tomorrow. As anationalist one must have a prior knowledge of its history in order tounderstand the true essence of nationalism. But it doesn’t necessarily meanthat we have to look back and understand everything, in order to consider ouractions as nationalism.
In simplest sense, nationalism is aspiring for changewith that benefits the nation, such safeguarding one’s sovereignty fromexternal forces, buying one’s product and paying homage to symbol ofindependence, our national anthem and flag and etcetera. Nationalism isexpressed in many ways or means but still yields to the same meaning and it isthe welfare of one’s nation. Ergo, dogma’s and doctrine’s precept influence theexpression of nationalism among the peasants. 1Karl Marx and The Rise of Communism. https://www.
./Karl%20Marx%20Communism101.pdf,retrievedonDecember07,20172 AlfredoB. Saulo, Communism in the Philippines: An Introduction (Quezon City: Ateneo deManila University Press, 2002), 2283 https://www.
allaboutphilosophy.org/what-is-marxism-faq.htm,retrievedDecember07,20174 Harold R. Kerbo, 2002, Social Stratificationand Inequality: New York : McGraw-Hill Education5 JoseMaria Sison. (1989). The Philippine Revolution: The Leaders View. New York:Taylor & Francis, pp. 41-46.
6Patricio N. Abinales, Filipino Communism and the Specter of CommunistManifesto.7 FrancisDomingo, 2013, Explaining the Sustainability of the Communist Party of thePhilippines-New People’s Army, Small Wars Journal.8 GreggR.
Jones, Red Revolution: Inside the Philippine Guerrilla Movement (Boulder,Colorado: West view Press, 1989), pp. 5-6.9 http://acienciala.faculty.ku.
edu/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html,retrievedonDecember08, 2017.10 http://www.thefilipinomind.com/search/label/Filipino%20peasantsretreivedonDecember,08,2017.
11Bert M. Drona, 2006, God and Revolution-Fr. Condrado Balweg, SVD.12 PeterChalk, Angel Rabasa and others The Evolving Terrorist threat in Southeast Asia:A Net Assessment.
(Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation, 2009), p. 57.13 http://www.thefilipinomind.com/2005/05/what-is-filipino-nationalism-mrs.htmlretreivedDecember08,2017.14 http://www.thefilipinomind.